Template:Infobox Government agency The Air Force Intelligence (Template:Lang-ar, Idarat al-Mukhabarat al-Jawiyya) is an intelligence service of Syria. Idarat al-Mukhabarat al-Jawiyya is possibly Syria's most powerful intelligence service, owing its importance to Hafez al-Assad's role as the Air Force commander. Despite its name, it is mainly involved with issues other than air force intelligence, and took an active part in the suppression of the Muslim Brotherhood rebellion in the 1980s. Agents of this service have frequently been stationed in Syrian embassies or branch offices of the national airline.
The service was headed for nearly thirty years Maj. Gen. Muhammad al-Khuli, who was trusted by Hafez al-Assad and had an office adjacent to the president's in the presidential palace. In 1995, it was headed by Ibrahim Huwayji. As of 2011 it is headed by Jamil Hassan, a member of the Alawite sect. Gen Hassan, an Alawite, previously served as a security official in the eastern governorate of Deir al-Zour. In late April 2011, personnel from Air Force Intelligence fired tear gas and live ammunition to disperse crowds of demonstrators who took to the streets in Damascus and other cities after noon prayers, killing at least 43 people, according to the US. The next month, the EU said Gen Hassan was "involved in the repression against the civilian population" during the recent anti-government unrest, and imposed a travel ban and asset freeze on him. He is a part of Bashar al-Assad's inner circle.
Heads of Air Force Intelligence Directorate[edit | edit source]
- Abdulfattah Qudsiya ( – 2009)
- Jamil Hassan (2009 – present) was sanctioned by the European Union for violence against the civilian population during the Syrian uprising.
- Deputy director: Fuad Tawil (2012) was sanctioned by European Union for the use of violence across Syria and intimidation and torture of protestors during the Syrian uprising.
- Head of Investigative branch: Maj. Gen. Abdulsalam Fajer Mahmoud (2011), accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity by Human Rights Watch.
- Head of Special Operations branch: Maj. Gen. Ghassan Ismail (2011).
- Head of Operations branch: Col. Suheil Hassan (2011).
Regional Heads of Air Force Intelligence Directorate[edit | edit source]
- Damascus branch: Eyad Mandou (2012)
- Homs branch: Brig. Gen. Jawdat al-Ahmed (2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.
- Daraa branch: Col. Qusay Mihoub (2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.
- Latakia branch: Col. Suhail Al-Abdullah (2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.
Other Syrian intelligence agencies[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- "Syria, Intelligence and Security". Espionageinfo.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. http://www.espionageinfo.com/Sp-Te/Syria-Intelligence-and-Security.html. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- "Erreur sur la page". Desinfos.com. http://www.desinfos.com/article.php?id_article=3899. Retrieved 13 October 2008. [dead link]
- "Syria's Intelligence Services: A Primer". Meib.org. July 2000. http://www.meib.org/articles/0007_s3.htm. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- "NSNL 61 – Intelligence profile : Syria". Cvni.net. http://www.cvni.net/radio/nsnl/nsnl061/nsnl61sy.html. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- "The Succession Struggle in Damascus – Middle East Quarterly". Meforum.org. http://www.meforum.org/article/264. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- Al Hendi, Ahed (3 May 2011). "The Structure of Syria's Repression". Foreign Affairs. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67823/ahed-al-hendi/the-structure-of-syrias-repression?page=show. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- BBC News – Bashar al-Assad's inner circle. Bbc.co.uk (18 May 2011). Retrieved on 12 April 2012.
- Ana Maria Luca; Nadine Elali (30 April 2011). "The Syrian uprising’s refugees". NOW Lebanon. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011. http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArticleDetails.aspx?ID=265995. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- Rathmell, Andrew (Fall 1997). "Syria's Intelligence Services: Origins and Development". Journal of Conflict Studies XVI (2). Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/bin/get.cgi?directory=J97/articles/&filename=RATHMELLwp1.htm. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Gambil, Gary (Feb. 2002). "The Military-Intelligence Shakeup in Syria". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin 4 (2). http://www.meforum.org/meib/articles/0202_s1.htm. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Bar, Shmuel (2006). "Bashar's Syria: The Regime and its Strategic Worldview". Comparative Strategy 25: 424. http://www.herzliyaconference.org/_Uploads/2590Bashars.pdf. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Syria's Assad 'reshuffles security chiefs'". UPI. 21 October 2010. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/Special/2010/10/21/Syrias-Assad-reshuffles-security-chiefs/UPI-89111287688825/. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "The Syrian President Reshuffles Security, Intelligence Leaders". 28 September 2010. Middle East Transparent. http://www.metransparent.com/spip.php?article11370. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- L_2012016EN.01000101.xml. Eur-lex.europa.eu (19 January 2012). Retrieved on 12 April 2012.
- "Council Regulation concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Syria and repealing Regulation (EU) No 442/2011". http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2011:0887:FIN:EN:PDF.
- "Torture Archipelago". Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/node/108415/section/2. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Syria: Turkish embassy closed, senior intel officer assassinated. Al Bawaba (26 March 2012). Retrieved on 12 April 2012.