|The neutrality of this article is disputed. (May 2012)|
Some sources say that the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has been involved in several drug trafficking operations. Some of these reports claim that congressional evidence indicates that the CIA worked with groups which it knew were involved in drug trafficking, so that these groups would provide them with useful intelligence and material support, in exchange for allowing their criminal activities to continue, and impeding or preventing their arrest, indictment, and imprisonment by U.S. law enforcement agencies.
Afghanistan (Soviet Union)[edit | edit source]
|20px||This section requires expansion. (February 2010)|
The CIA supported various Afghan rebel commanders, such as Mujahideen leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, who were fighting against the government of Afghanistan and the forces of the Soviet Union which were its supporters. Historian Alfred W. McCoy stated that:
"In most cases, the CIA's role involved various forms of complicity, tolerance or studied ignorance about the trade, not any direct culpability in the actual trafficking ... [t]he CIA did not handle heroin, but it did provide its drug lord allies with transport, arms, and political protection. In sum, the CIA's role in the Southeast Asian heroin trade involved indirect complicity rather than direct culpability."
Golden Triangle[edit | edit source]
CIA and Kuomintang opium smuggling operations[edit | edit source]
In order to provide covert funds for the Kuomintang (KMT) forces loyal to General Chiang Kai-shek, who were fighting the Chinese communists under Mao Zedong, the CIA helped the KMT smuggle opium from China and Burma to Bangkok, Thailand, by providing airplanes owned by one of their front businesses, Air America.
United States[edit | edit source]
Iran-Contra affair[edit | edit source]
- Main article: CIA and Contras cocaine trafficking in the US
Released on April 13, 1989, the Kerry Committee report concluded that members of the U.S. State Department "who provided support for the Contras were involved in drug trafficking... and elements of the Contras themselves knowingly received financial and material assistance from drug traffickers."
In 1996 Gary Webb wrote a series of articles published in the San Jose Mercury News, which investigated Nicaraguans linked to the CIA-backed Contras who had smuggled cocaine into the U.S. which was then distributed as crack cocaine into Los Angeles and funneled profits to the Contras. The CIA was aware of the cocaine transactions and the large shipments of drugs into the U.S. by the Contra personnel and directly aided drug dealers to raise money for the Contras. Although he heavily implied CIA involvement, Webb never claimed to have made a direct link between the CIA and the Contras. Moreover, Webb's articles were heavily attacked by many media outlets who questions the validity of his claims, although the unusual response led some to question if the CIA was involved. Webb turned the articles into a book called, Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion." On December 10, 2004, Webb reportedly committed suicide.
In 1996, CIA Director John M. Deutch went to Los Angeles to attempt to refute the allegations raised by the Webb articles, and was famously confronted by former Los Angeles Police Department officer Michael Ruppert, who testified that he had witnessed it occurring.
The CIA has been accused of moneylaundering the iran-contra drug funds via the BCCI, the former U.S. Commissioner of Customs William von Raab said that when customs agents raided the bank in 1988, they found numerous CIA accounts. The CIA also worked with BCCI in arming and financing the Afghan mujahideen during the Afghan War against the Soviet Union, using BCCI to launder proceeds from trafficking heroin grown in the Pakistan-Afghanistan borderlands, boosting the flow of narcotics to European and U.S. markets.
Mena, Arkansas[edit | edit source]
A number of allegations have been written about and several local, state, and federal investigations have taken place related to the notion of the Mena Intermountain Municipal Airport as a CIA drop point in large scale cocaine trafficking beginning in the latter part of the 1980s. The topic has received some press coverage that has included allegations of awareness, participation and/or coverup involvement of figures such as future presidents Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush, as well future Florida Governor Jeb Bush and Saline County prosecutor Dan Harmon (who was convicted of numerous felonies including drug and racketeering charges in 1997). The Mena airport was also associated with Adler Berriman (Barry) Seal, an American drug smuggler and aircraft pilot who flew covert flights for the CIA and the Medellín Cartel.
A criminal investigator from the Arkansas State Police, Russell Welch, who was assigned to investigate Mena airport claimed that he opened a letter which released electrostatically charged Anthrax spores in his face, and that he had his life saved after a prompt diagnosis by a doctor.[who?] He also claimed that later, his doctor's office was vandalized, robbed, and test results and correspondence with the CDC in Atlanta were stolen.
An investigation by the CIA's inspector general concluded that the CIA had no involvement in or knowledge of any illegal activities that may have occurred in Mena. The report said that the agency had conducted a training exercise at the airport in partnership with another Federal agency and that companies located at the airport had performed "routine aviation-related services on equipment owned by the CIA".
Mexico[edit | edit source]
According to Peter Dale Scott, the Dirección Federal de Seguridad was in part a CIA creation, and "the CIA's closest government allies were for years in the DFS". DFS badges, "handed out to top-level Mexican drug-traffickers, have been labelled by DEA agents a virtual 'license to traffic.'" Scott says that "The Guadalajara Cartel, Mexico's most powerful drug-trafficking network in the early 1980s, prospered largely because it enjoyed the protection of the DFS, under its chief Miguel Nazar Haro, a CIA asset."
Vicente Zambada Niebla, the son of Ismael Zambada García one of the top drug lords in Mexico, claimed after his arrest to his attorneys that he and other top Sinaloa cartel members had received immunity by U.S. agents and a virtual licence to smuggle cocaine over the United States border, in exchange for intelligence about rival cartels engaged in the Mexican Drug War.
Panama[edit | edit source]
In 1989, the United States invaded Panama as part of Operation Just Cause, which involved 25,000 American troops. Gen. Manuel Noriega, head of government of Panama, had been giving military assistance to Contra groups in Nicaragua at the request of the U.S.—which, in exchange, allowed him to continue his drug-trafficking activities—which they had known about since the 1960s. When the DEA tried to indict Noriega in 1971, the CIA prevented them from doing so. The CIA, which was then directed by future president George H. W. Bush, provided Noriega with hundreds of thousands of dollars per year as payment for his work in Latin America. However, when CIA pilot Eugene Hasenfus was shot down over Nicaragua by the Sandinistas, documents aboard the plane revealed many of the CIA's activities in Latin America, and the CIA's connections with Noriega became a public relations "liability" for the U.S. government, which finally allowed the DEA to indict him for drug trafficking, after decades of allowing his drug operations to proceed unchecked. Operation Just Cause, whose ostensible purpose was to capture Noriega, pushed the former Panamanian leader into the Papal Nuncio where he surrendered to U.S. authorities. His trial took place in Miami, where he was sentenced to 45 years in prison.
Noriega's prison sentence was reduced from 30 years to 17 years for good behavior. After serving 17 years in detention and imprisonment, his prison sentence ended on September 9, 2007. He was held under U.S. custody before being extradited to French custody where he was sentenced to 7 years for laundering money from Colombian drug cartels.
Venezuelan National Guard Affair[edit | edit source]
The CIA, in spite of objections from the Drug Enforcement Administration, allowed at least one ton of nearly pure cocaine to be shipped into Miami International Airport. The CIA claimed to have done this as a way of gathering information about Colombian drug cartels, but the cocaine ended up being sold on the street.
In November 1993, the former head of the DEA, Robert C. Bonner appeared on 60 Minutes and criticized the CIA for allowing several tons of pure cocaine to be smuggled into the U.S. via Venezuela without first notifying and securing the approval of the DEA.
In November 1996, a Miami grand jury indicted former Venezuelan anti-narcotics chief and longtime CIA asset, General Ramon Guillen Davila, who was smuggling many tons of cocaine into the United States from a Venezuelan warehouse owned by the CIA. In his trial defense, Guillen claimed that all of his drug smuggling operations were approved by the CIA.
See also[edit | edit source]
- CIA and Contras cocaine trafficking in the US
- CIA transnational anti-crime and anti-drug activities
- War on Drugs
- Air America (airline)
- War crimes committed by the United States
- Castle Bank & Trust (Bahamas)
- Nugan Hand Bank
References[edit | edit source]
- Coletta Youngers, Eileen Rosin, ed. (2005). Drugs and democracy in Latin America: the impact of U.S. policy. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 206. ISBN 978-1-58826-254-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=jAzNQGZ0AV4C&pg=RA2-PA206&dq=cia+drug+trafficking&ei=14GFS8jwFZ6KlQS-29XZBA&cd=9#v=onepage&q=cia%20drug%20trafficking&f=false.
- Rodney Stich (30 January 2007). Drugging America: A Trojan Horse. Silverpeak Enterprises. pp. 433–434. ISBN 978-0-932438-11-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=tftW9A5cUNsC&pg=PA433. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- 9 November 1991 interview with Alfred McCoy, by Paul DeRienzo
- p. 385 of The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, by McCoy, with Cathleen B. Read and Leonard P. Adams II, 2003, ISBN 1-55652-483-8
- Cockburn, Alexander; Jeffrey St. Clair (1998). "9". Whiteout, the CIA, drugs and the press. New York: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-258-5.
- Blum, William. "The CIA and Drugs: Just say "Why not?"". Third World Traveller. http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Blum/CIADrugs_WBlum.html. Retrieved 30 January 2010.
- RICHARD LACAYO (2001-06-24). "Iran-Contra: The Cover-Up Begins to Crack". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,157496,00.html. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- Fritz, Sara (1991-08-01). "CIA Issued Early Warning on BCCI, Document Shows : Banking: Memo from '86 appears to counter claims that agency or Gates participated in a cover-up.". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1991-08-01/news/mn-180_1_early-warning. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "The Spoils of War: Afghanistan's Multibillion Dollar Heroin Trade". Globalresearch.ca. http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHO404A.html. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- Hughes, Bill. "CIA Probed in Alleged Arms Shipments; Reports Claim Agency Was Involved in Arkansas-Nicaragua Drug Swaps". Highbeam.com. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-791307.html. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- Hughes, Bill. "Clandestination: Arkansas; Mena Is a Quiet Little Place. So How Did It Become the Cloak-and-Dagger Capital of America?". Highbeam.com. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-901388.html. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- Weil, Martin. "Truth & consequences.(Chairman Jim Leach of the House Banking and Financial Services Committee plans Mena Airport investigation)". Highbeam.com. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-17864687.html. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "What Was Clinton's Role In 'Mena Mystery!?'". Highbeam.com. 1995-07-19. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-2359062.html. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Ex-Saline County Prosecutor Dan Harmon arrested on felony drug charges". todaysthv.com. 2010-02-19. http://www.todaysthv.com/news/local/story.aspx?storyid=99666. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Compromised: Clinton, Bush and the CIA (pages 105,146,216,238,239)". Books.google.ca. http://books.google.ca/books?id=zRlXGVfUJPsC&pg=PA146&dq=rusell+welch&hl=en&sa=X&ei=gUBiT726N-Xl0QHz1bmvCA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=rusell%20welch&f=false. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Anthrax and the Politics of Terror". Stewwebb.com. 2002-01-07. http://www.stewwebb.com/Anthrax%20Russell%20Welch%20AR.%20State%20Police.html. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Drugging America: A Trojan Horse (page 72-74)". Books.google.ca. 2007-01-30. http://books.google.ca/books?id=NYAavQULoHwC&pg=PT137&dq=rusell+welch&hl=en&sa=X&ei=iT9iT5krh9vRAcXl2a4I&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=rusell%20welch&f=false. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Drugs, law, and the state (Foreword xxiii)". Books.google.ca. http://books.google.ca/books?id=Z_1AaddjrJkC&pg=PR23&dq=rusell+welch&hl=en&sa=X&ei=iT9iT5krh9vRAcXl2a4I&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=rusell%20welch&f=false. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- Rothberg, Donald (9 November 1996). "Investigation Absolves CIA in Alleged Drug Smuggling". Associated Press.
- Peter Dale Scott (2000), Washington and the politics of drugs, Variant, 2(11)
- "Court Pleadings Point to CIA Role in Alleged “Cartel” Immunity Deal | the narcosphere". Narcosphere.narconews.com. http://narcosphere.narconews.com/notebook/bill-conroy/2011/09/court-pleadings-point-cia-role-alleged-cartel-immunity-deal. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- Name * (2011-08-01). "Top Drug Trafficker Claims U.S. Government Made Agreement to Protect Sinaloa Cartel". Public Intelligence. http://publicintelligence.net/top-drug-trafficker-claims-u-s-government-made-agreement-to-protect-sinaloa-cartel/. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- Cockburn, Alexander; Jeffrey St. Clair (1998). Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. New York: Verso. pp. 287–290. ISBN 1-85984-258-5.
- Buckley, Kevin (1991). Panama: The Whole Story. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-72794-9.
- Schpoliansky, Christophe (2010-04-27). "Panama's Ex-Dictator Manuel Noriega Extradited from U.S. to France". Abcnews.go.com. http://abcnews.go.com/International/Blotter/panamas-dictator-manuel-noriega-extradited-us-france/story?id=10486776. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Manuel Noriega scheduled for September release". USA Today. 24 January 2007. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2007-01-24-noriega-release_x.htm.
- "Manuel Noriega sentenced to 7 years". Reuters. 7 July 2010. http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/07/07/us-france-panama-noriega-idUSTRE6662BJ20100707.
- New York Times Service, "Venezuelan general who led CIA program indicted," Dallas Morning News (26 November 1996) p. 6A.
- Chua, Howard G. (1993-11-29). "Confidence Games". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,979669,00.html. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- Russ Kick, ed. (2001). You are being lied to: the disinformation guide to media distortion, historical whitewashes and cultural myths. The Disinformation Company. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-9664100-7-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=KALsz08ijnkC&pg=PT132&dq=cia+drug+trafficking&ei=BniFS76IJaWulQSE0tnVBA&cd=4#v=onepage&q=cia%20drug%20trafficking&f=false.
- "Venezuelan General Indicted in C.I.A. Scheme". New York Times: p. 2. 1996-11-23. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/11/23/us/venezuelan-general-indicted-in-cia-scheme.html?pagewanted=2&src=pm. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Dale-Scott, Peter; Marshall, Jonathan (1998). Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21449-8.
- Dale-Scott, Peter (2003). "11, "Opium, the China Lobby, and the CIA"". Drugs, oil, and war: the United States in Afghanistan, Colombia, and Indochina. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-2522-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=2wXCvk3UDDsC&pg=PA185&dq=cia+opium+afghanistan&ei=gUaHS6GdJpPkkwTHzumqDQ&cd=2#v=onepage&q=cia%20opium%20afghanistan&f=false.
- McCoy, Alfred W. (2003). The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, Afghanistan, Southeast Asia, Central America, Columbia. Lawrence Hill & Co.. ISBN 1-55652-483-8.
- Webb, Gary (1999). Dark Alliance: CIA, the Contras and the Crack Cocaine Explosion. Seven Stories Press,U.S.. ISBN 1-888363-93-2.
- Ruppert, Michael (2004). Crossing the Rubicon: The Decline of the American Empire at the End of the Age of Oil. New Society Publishers. ISBN 0-86571-540-8.
- Kruger, Henrik. (1980). The Great Heroin Coup: Drugs, Intelligence, and International Fascism.. South End Press. ISBN 0-89608-031-5.
- Levine, Michael (1993). The Big White Lie: The Deep Cover Operation That Exposed the CIA Sabotage of the Drug War.. Thunder's Mouth Pr. ISBN 978-1-56025-084-5.
- Gritz, James (1991). A nation betrayed. Center for action. ISBN 0-9622238-0-8.
- Kwitny, Jonathan (1988). The Crimes of Patriots: A True Tale of Dope, Dirty Money, and the CIA. Touchstone Books. ISBN 978-0-671-66637-8.
[edit | edit source]
- NarcoNews: U.S. Cocaine-Plane Invasion Spooking Latin America
- The Chip Tatum Chronicles: Testimony of Government Drug Running (self-published) (author deceased March 26, 2012 according to Obituary published in Tampa Bay Times)
- The CIA - America's Premier International Terrorist Organization
- CIA Drugs - Defrauding America
- Consortium News - CIA Admits Tolerating Contra- Cocaine Trafficking in 1980s - 08/06/00
- Frontline: Guns, Drugs, and the CIA
- North Coast Express - CIA Covert Actions and Drug Trafficking
- Rational Revolution - The CIA Drug connection under Reagan
- Salon.com - Genocide, and drug-trafficking too - 05/03/99
- San Francisco Chronicle - What Will Congress Do About New CIA-Drug Revelations? - 19/06/00
- Third World Traveller - CIA's Drug Confession - 15/10/98
- Third World Traveller - Drug Fallout - August 97
- We The People - CIA Drugs
- Drugging America: A Trojan Horse
- Drug: Afghanistan’s Silent Enemy
- Congressional Testimony of Peter Kornbluh