ECHELON is a name used in global media and in popular culture to describe a signals intelligence (SIGINT) collection and analysis network operated on behalf of the five signatory states to the UK–USA Security Agreement (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States, referred to by a number of abbreviations, including AUSCANNZUKUS and Five Eyes). It has also been described as the only software system which controls the download and dissemination of the intercept of commercial satellite trunk communications.
ECHELON was reportedlyTemplate:By whom? created to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies during the Cold War in the early 1960s.
The system has been reported in a number of public sources. Its capabilities and political implications were investigated by a committee of the European Parliament during 2000 and 2001 with a report published in 2001, and by author James Bamford in his books on the National Security Agency of the United States. The European Parliament stated in its report that the term ECHELON is used in a number of contexts, but that the evidence presented indicates that it was the name for a signals intelligence collection system. The report concludes that, on the basis of information presented, ECHELON was capable of interception and content inspection of telephone calls, fax, e-mail and other data traffic globally through the interception of communication bearers including satellite transmission, public switched telephone networks (which once carried most Internet traffic) and microwave links.
Bamford describes the system as the software controlling the collection and distribution of civilian telecommunications traffic conveyed using communication satellites, with the collection being undertaken by ground stations located in the footprint of the downlink leg.
Organization[edit | edit source]
- the National Security Agency of the United States,
- the Government Communications Headquarters of Britain,
- the Communications Security Establishment of Canada,
- the Defence Signals Directorate of Australia, and
- the Government Communications Security Bureau of New Zealand.
The EP report concluded that it seemed likely that ECHELON is a method of sorting captured signal traffic, rather than a comprehensive analysis tool.
Capabilities[edit | edit source]
The ability to intercept communications depends on the medium used, be it radio, satellite, microwave, cellular or fiber-optic. During World War II and through the 1950s, high frequency ("short wave") radio was widely used for military and diplomatic communication, and could be intercepted at great distances. The rise of geostationary communications satellites in the 1960s presented new possibilities for intercepting international communications. The report to the European Parliament of 2001 states: "If UKUSA states operate listening stations in the relevant regions of the earth, in principle they can intercept all telephone, fax and data traffic transmitted via such satellites."
The role of satellites in point-to-point voice and data communications has largely been supplanted by fiber optics; in 2006, 99% of the world's long-distance voice and data traffic was carried over optical-fiber. The proportion of international communications accounted for by satellite links is said to have decreased substantially over the past few years[when?] in Central Europe to an amount between 0.4% and 5%. Even in less-developed parts of the world, communications satellites are used largely for point-to-multipoint applications, such as video. Thus, the majority of communications can no longer be intercepted by earth stations; they can only be collected by tapping cables and intercepting line-of-sight microwave signals, which is possible only to a limited extent.
One method of interception is to place equipment at locations where fiber optic communications are switched. For the Internet, much of the switching occurs at relatively few sites. There have been reports of one such intercept site, Room 641A, in the United States. In the past[when?] much Internet traffic was routed through the U.S. and the UK, but this has changed; for example, in 2000, 95% of intra-German Internet communications was routed via the DE-CIX Internet exchange point in Frankfurt. A comprehensive worldwide surveillance network is possible only if clandestine intercept sites are installed in the territory of friendly nations, and/or if local authorities cooperate. The report to the European Parliament points out that interception of private communications by foreign intelligence services is not necessarily limited to the U.S. or British foreign intelligence services.
Most reports on ECHELON focus on satellite interception; testimony before the European Parliament indicated that separate but similar UK-US systems are in place to monitor communication through undersea cables, microwave transmissions and other lines.
Controversy[edit | edit source]
Intelligence monitoring of citizens, and their communications, in the area covered by the AUSCANNZUKUS security agreement has caused concern. British journalist Duncan Campbell and New Zealand journalist Nicky Hager asserted in the 1990s that the United States was exploiting ECHELON traffic for industrial espionage, rather than military and diplomatic purposes. Examples alleged by the journalists include the gear-less wind turbine technology designed by the German firm Enercon and the speech technology developed by the Belgian firm Lernout & Hauspie. An article in the US newspaper Baltimore Sun reported in 1995 that European aerospace company Airbus lost a $6 billion contract with Saudi Arabia in 1994 after the US National Security Agency reported that Airbus officials had been bribing Saudi officials to secure the contract.
In 2001 the Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System recommended to the European Parliament that citizens of member states routinely use cryptography in their communications to protect their privacy, because economic espionage with ECHELON has been conducted by the US intelligence agences.
Bamford provides an alternative view, highlighting that legislation prohibits the use of intercepted communications for commercial purposes, although does not elaborate on how intercepted communications are used as part of an all-source intelligence process.
Hardware[edit | edit source]
According to its website, the US National Security Agency (NSA) is "a high technology organization ... on the frontiers of communications and data processing". In 1999 the Australian Senate Joint Standing Committee on Treaties was told by Professor Desmond Ball that the Pine Gap facility was used as a ground station for a satellite-based interception network. The satellites were said to be large radio dishes between 20 and 100 meters in diameter in geostationary orbits. The original purpose of the network was to monitor the telemetry from 1970s Soviet weapons, air defence radar, communications satellites and ground based microwave communications.
Name[edit | edit source]
The European Parliament's Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System stated: "It seems likely, in view of the evidence and the consistent pattern of statements from a very wide range of individuals and organisations, including American sources, that its name is in fact ECHELON, although this is a relatively minor detail." The U.S. intelligence community uses many code names (see, for example, CIA cryptonym).
Former NSA employee Margaret Newsham claims that she worked on the configuration and installation of software that makes up the ECHELON system while employed at Lockheed Martin, for whom she worked from 1974 to 1984 in Sunnyvale, California, US, and in Menwith Hill, England, UK. At that time, according to Newsham, the code name ECHELON was NSA's term for the computer network itself. Lockheed called it P415. The software programs were called SILKWORTH and SIRE. A satellite named VORTEX intercepted communications. An image available on the internet of a fragment apparently torn from a job description shows Echelon listed along with several other code names.
Ground stations[edit | edit source]
The 2001 European Parliamentary (EP) report lists several ground stations as possibly belonging to, or participating in, the ECHELON network. These include:
Likely satellite intercept stations[edit | edit source]
The following stations are listed in the EP report (p. 54 ff) as likely to have, or to have had, a role in intercepting transmissions from telecommunications satellites:
- Hong Kong (since closed)
- Australian Defence Satellite Communications Station (Geraldton, Western Australia)
- Menwith Hill (Yorkshire, UK) Map (reportedly the largest Echelon facility)
- Misawa Air Base (Japan) Map
- GCHQ Bude, formerly known as GCHQ CSO Morwenstow, (Cornwall, UK) Map
- Pine Gap (Northern Territory, Australia - close to Alice Springs) Map
- Sugar Grove (West Virginia, US) Map
- Yakima Training Center (Washington, US) Map
- GCSB Waihopai (New Zealand)
- GCSB Tangimoana (New Zealand)
- CFS Leitrim (Ontario, Canada)
[edit | edit source]
The following stations are listed in the EP report (p. 57 ff) as ones whose roles "cannot be clearly established":
- Ayios Nikolaos (Cyprus - UK)
- Bad Aibling Station (Bad Aibling, Germany - US)
- Buckley Air Force Base (Aurora, Colorado, US)
- Fort Gordon (Georgia, US)
- Gander (Newfoundland & Labrador, Canada)
- Guam (Pacific Ocean, US)
- Kunia (Hawaii, US)
- Lackland Air Force Base, Medina Annex (San Antonio, Texas, US)
See also[edit | edit source]
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Echelon|
- Carnivore (software)
- Ivy bells
- Onyx (interception system), the Swiss "Echelon" equivalent
- SIGINT intercept database
- UKUSA Agreement
- Stellar wind (code name)
References[edit | edit source]
- Google books - Echelon by John O'Neill
- "AUSCANNZUKUS Information Portal". auscannzukus.net. http://www.auscannzukus.net/. Retrieved 2010-02-01.
- Bamford, James; Body of Secrets, Anchor, ISBN 0-385-49908-6; 2002
- One of the earliest public reports of ECHELON was a 1988 New Statesman article entitled Someone's Listening.
- Schmid, Gerhard (2001-07-11). "On the existence of a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications (ECHELON interception system), (2001/2098(INI))" (pdf - 194 pages). European Parliament: Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+REPORT+A5-2001-0264+0+DOC+PDF+V0//EN&language=EN. Retrieved 2008-03-27.
- The Codebreakers, Ch. 10, 11
- "NSA eavesdropping: How it might work". CNET News.com. http://news.com.com/NSA+eavesdropping+How+it+might+work/2100-1028_3-6035910.html. Retrieved 2006-08-27.
- "Commercial Geostationary Satellite Transponder Markets for Latin America : Market Research Report". http://www.marketresearch.com/map/prod/1117944.html. Retrieved 2006-08-27.
- For example: "Nicky Hager Appearance before the Euro ean Parliament ECHELON Committee". April 2001. http://cryptome.org/echelon-nh.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-02.
- Die Zeit: 40/1999 "Verrat unter Freunden" ("Treachery among friends", German), available at Zeit.de[dead link]
- "Amerikanen maakten met Echelon L&H kapot". daanspeak.com. 2002-03-30. http://www.daanspeak.com/Hypocratie09.html. Retrieved 2008-03-28. (Google's translation of the article into English).
- "Echelon: Big brother without a cause". BBC News. 2000-07-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/820758.stm. Retrieved 2006-08-27.
- "Interception capabilities 2000". http://www.cyber-rights.org/interception/stoa/ic2kreport.htm#Report. Retrieved 2006-08-27.
- Pine Gap, Official Committee Hansard, Joint Standing Committee on Treaties, 9 August 1999. Commonwealth of Australia.
- Elkjær, Bo; Kenan Seeberg (1999-11-17). "ECHELON Was My Baby". Ekstra Bladet. http://cryptome.org/echelon-baby.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-17. “Unfortunately, I can’t tell you all my duties. I am still bound by professional secrecy, and I would hate to go to prison or get involved in any trouble, if you know what I mean. In general, I can tell you that I was responsible for compiling the various systems and programs, configuring the whole thing and making it operational on mainframes"; "Margaret Newsham worked for the NSA through her employment at Ford and Lockheed from 1974 to 1984. In 1977 and 1978 Newsham was stationed at the largest listening post in the world at Menwith Hill, England ... Ekstra Bladet has Margaret Newsham’s stationing orders from the US Department of Defense. She possessed the high security classification TOP SECRET CRYPTO."
- "Names of ECHELON associated projects – image without any context". http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20080227152501/http://www.ladlass.com/intel/archives/images/menwith.jpg. in "Interception Capabilities 2000 - PART 1". 2003-12-18. http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20080105132738/http://www.ladlass.com/intel/archives/006457.html.
- Le Monde Diplomatique, September 2010
- According to a statement by Terence Dudlee, the speaker of the US Navy in London, in an interview to the German HR (Hessischer Rundfunk)
US-Armee lauscht von Darmstadt aus (German), hr online, 1 October 2004
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Aldrich, Richard J.; GCHQ: The Uncensored Story of Britain's Most Secret Intelligence Agency, HarperCollins, July 2010. ISBN 978-0-00-727847-3
- Bamford, James; The Puzzle Palace, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-006748-5; 1983
- Bamford, James; The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America, Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-52132-4; 2008
- Hager, Nicky; Secret Power, New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network; Craig Potton Publishing, Nelson, NZ; ISBN 0-908802-35-8; 1996
- Keefe, Patrick Radden Chatter: dispatches from the secret world of global eavesdropping; Random House Publishing, New York, NY; ISBN 1-4000-6034-6; 2005
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