|Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation|
'Федеральная служба безопасности Российской Федерации'
Federal'naya sluzhba bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii
|Common name||Federal Security Service|
|Emblem of the Federal Security Service|
|Formed||3 April, 1995|
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government agency|
|Headquarters||Lubyanka Square, Moscow, Russia|
The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB) (Template:Lang-ru; Federal'naya sluzhba bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the main domestic security agency of the Russian Federation and the main successor agency of the Soviet Committee of State Security (KGB). Its main responsibilities are counter-intelligence, internal and border security, counter-terrorism, and surveillance. Its headquarters are on Lubyanka Square, downtown Moscow.
The direct predecessor of the FSB was the Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK). On 3 April 1995, President Boris Yeltsin signed a law ordering a reorganisation of the FSK, which resulted in the creation of the FSB. In 2003, the FSB's responsibilities were widened with the integration of the Border Guard Service and a major part of the abolished Federal Agency of Government Communication and Information (FAPSI). The FSB was made subordinate to the Ministry of Justice by presidential decree on 9 March 2004. The Director of FSB, since 2008, is Aleksandr Bortnikov.
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 Role
- 4 Organization
- 5 Criticism
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Overview[edit | edit source]
The FSB is responsible for internal security of the Russian state, counterespionage, and the fight against organized crime, terrorism, and drug smuggling. Since 2003, when the Federal Border Guards Service was incorporated to the FSB, it has also been responsible for overseeing border security. The FSB is engaged mostly in domestic affairs, while espionage duties are responsibility of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service. However, the FSB also includes the FAPSI agency, which conducts electronic surveillance abroad. All law enforcement and intelligence agencies in Russia work under the guidance of FSB, if needed. For example, the GRU, spetsnaz and Internal Troops detachments of Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs work together with the FSB in Chechnya.
The FSB combines functions and powers similar to those exercised by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the Federal Protective Service, the Secret Service, the National Security Agency (NSA), U.S. Customs and Border Protection, United States Coast Guard, and Drug Enforcement Administration.
The FSB employs about 66,200 uniformed staff, including about 4,000 special forces troops. It also employs about 160,000–200,000 border guards.
History[edit | edit source]
Initial reorganization of the KGB[edit | edit source]
The Federal Security Service is one of the successor organisations of the Soviet Committee of State Security (KGB). After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and following the attempted coup of 1991—in which some KGB units as well as the head Vladimir Kryuchkov played a major part—the KGB was dismantled and ceased to exist from November 1991. In December 1991, two organisations were created from the remnants of the KGB: Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) and Federal Counter-Intelligence Agency (FAPSI). In January 1992 another new institution, the Ministry of Security took over domestic and border security responsibilities.
Following the 1993 coup attempt against President Boris Yeltsin, the Ministry of Security was reorganized on 21 December 1993 into the Federal Counter-Intelligence Service (FSK). The FSK was headed by Sergei Stepashin. Before the start of the main military activities of the First Chechen War the FSK was responsible for the covert operations against the separatists led by Dzhokhar Dudayev.
Creation of the FSB[edit | edit source]
In 1995, the FSK was renamed and reorganized into the Federal Security Service (FSB) by the Federal Law of 3 April 1995, "On the Organs of the Federal Security Service in the Russian Federation". The FSB reforms were rounded out by decree No. 633, signed by Boris Yeltsin on 23 June 1995. The decree made the tasks of the FSB more specific, giving the FSB substantial rights to conduct cryptographic work, and described the powers of the FSB director. The number of deputy directors was increased to 8: 2 first deputies, 5 deputies responsible for departments and directorates and 1 deputy director heading the Moscow City and Moscow regional directorate. Yeltsin appointed Colonel-General Mikhail Ivanovich Barsukov as the new director of the FSB.
In 1998 Yeltsin appointed as director of the FSB Vladimir Putin, a KGB veteran who would later succeed Yeltsin as federal president. Putin was reluctant to take over the directorship, but once appointed conducted a thorough reorganisation, which included the dismissal of most of the FSB's top personnel. Putin appointed Nikolai Patrushev as the head of FSB in 1999.
Role in the Second Chechen War[edit | edit source]
After the main military offensive of the Second Chechen War ended and the separatists changed tactics to guerilla warfare, overall command of the federal forces in Chechnya was transferred from the military to the FSB in January 2001. While the army lacked technical means of tracking the guerilla groups, the FSB suffered from insufficient human intelligence due its inability to build networks of agents and informants. In the autumn of 2002, the separatists launched a massive campaign of terrorism against the Russian civilians, including the Dubrovka theatre attack. The inability of the federal forces to conduct efficient counter-terrorist operations led to the government to transfer the responsibility of "maintaining order" in Chechnya from the FSB to the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in July 2003.
The Putin reforms[edit | edit source]
After becoming President, Vladimir Putin launched a major reorganisation of the agency. First, the FSB was placed under direct control of the President by a decree issued on 17 May 2000. Internal structure of the agency was reformed by a decree signed on 17 June 2000. In the resulting structure, the FSB was to have a director, a first deputy director and nine other deputy directors, including one state secretary and the chiefs of six departments: Economic Security Department, Counterintelligence Department, Organizational and Personnel Service, Department of activity provision, Department for Analysis, Forecasting and Strategic Planning, Department for Protection of the Constitutional System and the Fight against Terrorism.
In 2003, the agency's responsibilities were considerably widened. The Border Guard Service of Russia, with its staff of 210,000, was integrated to the FSB via a decree was signed on 11 March 2003. The merger was completed by 1 July 2003. In addition, The Federal Agency of Government Communication and Information (FAPSI) was abolished and the FSB was granted a major part of its functions, while other parts went to the Ministry of Defense.
Among the reasons for this strengthening of the FSB were enhanced need for security of after increased terror attacks against Russian civilians starting from the Moscow theater hostage crisis; the need to end the permanent infighting between the FSB, FAPSI and the Border Guards due to their overlapping functions and the need for more efficient response to migration, drug trafficking and illegal arms trading. It has also been pointed out, that the FSB was the only power base of the new president, and the restructuring therefore strengthened Putin's position (see Political groups under Vladimir Putin's presidency).
On 28 June 2004 in a speech to high-ranking FSB officers, Putin emphasized three major tasks of the agency: neutralizing foreign espionage, safeguarding economic and financial security of the country and combating organized crime.
In September 2006, the FSB was shaken by a major reshuffle, which, combined with some earlier reassignments (most remarkably, those of FSB Deputy Directors Yury Zaostrovtsev and Vladimir Anisimov in 2004 and 2005, respectively), were widely believed to be linked to the Three Whales Corruption Scandal that had slowly unfolded since 2000. Some analysts considered it to be an attempt to undermine FSB Director Nikolay Patrushev's influence, as it was Patrushev's team from the Karelian KGB Directorate of the late 1980s – early 1990s that had suffered most and he had been on vacations during the event.
By 2008, the agency had one Director, two First Deputy Directors and 5 Deputy Directors. It had the following 9 divisions:
- Service for Defense of Constitutional Order and Fight against Terrorism
- Border Service
- Economic Security Service
- Current Information and International Links
- Organizational and Personnel Service
- Monitoring Department
- Scientific and Technical Service
- Organizational Security Service
The fight against terrorism[edit | edit source]
Starting from the Moscow theater hostage crisis in 2002, Russia was faced with increased levels of Islamist terrorism. The FSB, being the main agency responsible for counter-terrorist operations, was in the front line in the fight against terror. During the Moscow theater siege and the Beslan school siege, FSB's Spetsnaz units Alpha Group and Vympel played a key role in the hostage release operations. However, their performance was criticised due to the high number of hostage casualties. In 2006, the FSB scored a major success in its counter-terrorist efforts when it successfully killed Shamil Basayev, the mastermind behind the Beslan tragedy and several other high-profile terrorist acts. According to the FSB, the operation was planned over six months and made possible due to the FSB's increased activities in foreign countries that were supplying arms to the terrorists. Basayev was tracked via the surveillance of this arms trafficking. Basayev and other militants were preparing to carry out a terrorist attack in Ingushetia when FSB agents destroyed their convoy; 12 militants were killed.
During the last years of the Vladimir Putin's second presidency (2006–2008), terrorist attacks in Russia dwindled, falling from 257 in 2005 to just 48 in 2007. Military analyst Vitaly Shlykov praised the effectiveness of Russia's security agencies, saying that the experience learned in Chechnya and Dagestan had been key to the success. In 2008, the American Carnegie Endowment's Foreign Policy magazine named Russia as "the worst place to be a terrorist" and highlighted especially Russia's willingness to prioritize national security over civil rights.
Increased terrorism and expansion of the FSB's powers[edit | edit source]
Starting from 2009, the level of terrorism in Russia increased again. Particularly worrisome was the increase of suicide attacks. While between February 2005 and August 2008, no civilians were killed in such attacks, in 2008 at least 17 were killed and in 2009 the number rose to 45.
In March 2010, Islamist militants organised the 2010 Moscow Metro bombings, which killed 40 people. One of the two blasts took place at Lubyanka station, near the FSB headquarters. Militant leader Doku Umarov — dubbed "Russia's Osama Bin Laden" — took responsibility for the attacks. In July 2010, President Dmitry Medvedev expanded the FSB's powers in its fight against terrorism. FSB officers received the power to issue warnings to citizens on actions that could lead to committing crimes and arrest people for 15 days if they fail to comply with legitimate orders given by the officers. The bill was harshly criticised by human rights organisations.
Role[edit | edit source]
Counterintelligence[edit | edit source]
In 2011, the FSB exposed 199 foreign spies, including 41 professional spies and 158 agents employed by foreign intelligence services. The number has risen in recent years: in 2006 the FSB reportedly caught about 27 foreign intelligence officers and 89 foreign agents.
Comparing the number of exposed spies historically, the then-FSB Director Nikolay Kovalyov said in 1996: "There has never been such a number of spies arrested by us since the time when German agents were sent in during the years of World War II." The 2011 figure is similar to what was reported in 1995-1996, when around 400 foreign intelligence agents were uncovered during the two-year period.
In a high-profile case of foreign espionage, the FSB said in February 2012 that an engineer working at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, Russia's main space center for military launches, had been convicted to 13 years in prison on charges of state treason. A court judged that the engineer had sold information about testing of new Russian strategic missile systems to the American CIA.
An increasing number of scientists have been accused of espionage and illegal technology exports by the FSB during the last decade: researcher Igor Sutyagin, physicist Valentin Danilov, physical chemist Oleg Korobeinichev, academician Oskar Kaibyshev, and physicist Yury Ryzhov.
Ecologist and journalist Alexander Nikitin, who worked with the Bellona Foundation, was accused of espionage. He published material exposing hazards posed by the Russian Navy's nuclear fleet. He was acquitted in 1999 after spending several years in prison (his case was sent for re-investigation 13 times while he remained in prison). Other cases of prosecution are the cases of investigative journalist and ecologist Grigory Pasko, Vladimir Petrenko who described danger posed by military chemical warfare stockpiles, and Nikolay Shchur, chairman of the Snezhinskiy Ecological Fund.
Other arrested people include Viktor Orekhov, a former KGB officer who assisted Soviet dissidents, Vladimir Kazantsev who disclosed illegal purchases of eavesdropping devices from foreign firms, and Vil Mirzayanov who had written that Russia was working on a nerve gas weapon.
Counter-terrorism[edit | edit source]
In 2011, the FSB prevented 94 "crimes of a terrorist nature," including eight terrorist attacks. In particular, the agency foiled a planned suicide bombing in Moscow on New Year's Eve. However, the agency failed to prevent terrorists perpetrating the Domodedovo International Airport bombing.
Over the years, FSB and affiliated state security organizations have killed all "presidents" of the self-proclaimed Chechen Republic of Ichkeria including Dzhokhar Dudaev, Zelimkhan Yandarbiev, Aslan Maskhadov, and Abdul-Khalim Saidullaev. Just before his death, Saidullaev claimed that the Russian government "treacherously" killed Maskhadov, after inviting him to "talks" and promising his security "at the highest level."
During the Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan school hostage crisis, all hostage takers were killed on the spot by FSB spetsnaz forces. Only one of the suspects, Nur-Pashi Kulayev, survived and was convicted later by the court. It is reported that more than 100 leaders of terrorist groups have been killed during 119 operations on North Caucasus during 2006.
On 28 July 2006 the FSB presented a list of 17 terrorist organizations recognized by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, to Rossiyskaya Gazeta newspaper, which published the list that day. The list had been available previously, but only through individual request. Commenting on the list, Yuri Sapunov, head of anti-terrorism at the FSB, named three main criteria necessary for organizations to be listed.
Targeted killing[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Targeted killing
In July 2006, Chechen militant Islamist Shamil Salmanovich Basayev, responsible for the 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis that led to 129 civilian deaths and the 2004 Beslan school hostage crisis that led to 385 deaths, was killed in the village of Ekazhevo, in Ingushetia. The FSB, following him with a drone, spotted his car approach a truck laden with explosives that the FSB had prepared, and by remote control triggered a detonator that the FSB had hidden in the explosives.
The Russian ambassador to the United Nations, Vitaly Churkin, said:
"He is a notorious terrorist, and we have very clearly and publicly announced what is going to happen to notorious terrorists who commit heinous crimes of the type Mr. Basayev has been involved in."
Border protection[edit | edit source]
The Federal Border Guard Service (FPS) has been part of the FSB since 2003. Russia has 61,000 kilometers (38,000 mi) of sea and land borders, 7,500 kilometers (4,700 mi) of which is with Kazakhstan, and 4,000 kilometers (2,500 mi) with China. One kilometer (1,100 yd) of border protection costs around 1 million rubles per year.
Export control[edit | edit source]
The FSB is engaged in the development of Russia's export control strategy and examines drafts of international agreements related to the transfer of dual-use and military commodities and technologies. Its primary role in the nonproliferation sphere is to collect information to prevent the illegal export of controlled nuclear technology and materials.
Intimidation of foreign diplomats and journalists[edit | edit source]
The FSB has been accused of using psychological techniques to intimidate western diplomatic staff and journalists, with the intention of making them curtail their work in Russia early. The techniques involve entering targets' houses, moving household items around, replacing items with similar (but slightly different) items, and even sending sex toys to a male target's wife, all with the intention of confusing and scaring the target. Guardian journalist, Luke Harding, claims to have been the subject of such techniques.
Organization[edit | edit source]
Template:Update Below the nationwide level, the FSB has regional offices in the federal subjects of Russia. It also has administrations in the armed forces and other military institutions. Sub-departments exist for areas such as aviation, special training centers, forensic expertise, military medicine, etc.
Structure of the Federal Office (incomplete):
- Counterintelligence Service (Department) – chiefs: Oleg Syromolotov (since Aug 2000), Valery Pechyonkin (September 1997 – August 2000)
- Directorate for the Counterintelligence Support of Strategic Facilities
- Military Counterintelligence Directorate — chiefs: Alexander Bezverkhny (at least since 2002), Vladimir Petrishchev (since January 1996)
- Service (Department) for Protection of the Constitutional System and the Fight against Terrorism – chiefs: Alexey Sedov (since March 2006), Alexander Bragin (2004 – March 2006), Alexander Zhdankov (2001–2004), German Ugryumov (2000–2001)
- Federal Protection Service of the Russian Federation – Director: General of Army Yevgeniy Alekseevich Murov (from 8 May 2000)
- Economic Security Service (Department) – chiefs: Alexander Bortnikov (since 2 March 2004), Yury Zaostrovtsev (January 2000 – March 2004), Viktor Ivanov (April 1999 – January 2000), Nikolay Patrushev (1998 – April 1999), Alexander Grigoryev (28 August – 1 October 1998).
- Operational Information and International Relations Service (Analysis, Forecasting, and Strategic Planning Department) – chiefs: Viktor Komogorov (since 1999), Sergei Ivanov (1998–1999)
- Organizational and Personnel Service (Department) – chiefs: Yevgeny Lovyrev (since 2001), Yevgeny Solovyov (before Lovyrev)
- Department for Activity Provision – chiefs: Mikhail Shekin (since September 2006), Sergey Shishin (before Shekin), Pyotr Pereverzev (as of 2004), Alexander Strelkov (before Pereverzev)
- Border Guard Service – chiefs: Vladimir Pronichev (since 2003)
- Control Service – chiefs: Alexander Zhdankov (since 2004)
- Inspection Directorate – chiefs: Vladimir Anisimov (2004 – May 2005), Rashid Nurgaliyev (12 July 2000 – 2002),
- Internal Security Directorate – chiefs: Alexander Kupryazhkin (until September 2006), Sergei Shishin (before Kupryazhkin since December 2002), Sergei Smirnov (April 1999 – December 2002), Viktor Ivanov (1998 – Aril 1999), Nikolay Patrushev (1994–1998)
- Science and Engineering Service (Department) – chiefs: Nikolai Klimashin
- Investigation Directorate – chiefs: Nikolay Oleshko (since December 2004), Yury Anisimov (as of 2004), Viktor Milchenko (since 2002), Sergey Balashov (until 2002 since at least 2001), Vladimir Galkin (as of 1997 and 1998)
Besides the services (departments) and directorates of the federal office, the territorial directorates of FSB in the federal subects are also subordinate to it.
Of these, St. Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast Directorate of FSB and its predecessors (historically covering both Leningrad/Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast) have played especially important roles in the history of this organization, as many of the officers of the Directorate, including Vladimir Putin and Nikolay Patrushev, later assumed important positions within the federal FSB office or other government bodies. After the last Chief of the Soviet time, Anatoly Kurkov, the St. Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast Directorate were led by Sergei Stepashin (29 November 1991 – 1992), Viktor Cherkesov (1992 –1998), Alexander Grigoryev (1 October 1998 – 5 January 2001), Sergei Smirnov (5 January 2001 – June 2003), Alexander Bortnikov (June 2003 – March 2004) and Yury Ignashchenkov (since March 2004).
Directors of the FSB[edit | edit source]
On 20 June 1996, Boris Yeltsin fired FSB Director Mikhail Barsukov and appointed Nikolay Kovalyov as acting Director and later Director of the FSB. Aleksandr Bortnikov took over on 12 May 2008. Template:Div col
- Nikolai Golushko, December 1993 – February 1994
- Sergei Stepashin, February 1994 – June 1995
- Mikhail Barsukov, July 1995 – June 1996
- Nikolai Kovalyov, July 1996 – July 1998
- Vladimir Putin, July 1998 – August 1999
- Nikolai Patrushev, August 1999 – 12 May 2008
- Aleksandr Bortnikov, since 12 May 2008
Criticism[edit | edit source]
The FSB has been criticised for corruption and human rights violations. Some Kremlin-critics like Yulia Latynina and Alexander Litvinenko have claimed that the FSB is engaged in suppression of internal dissent. Litvinenko died in 2006 as a result of polonium poisoning.  The FSB has been further criticised for the failure to bring Islamist terrorism in Russia under control. Peter Finn of the Washington Post has claimed that FSB exercises huge political influence in the country.
In his book Mafia State, Luke Harding, the Moscow correspondent for The Guardian from to 2007 to 2011 and a fierce critic of Russia, alleges that the FSB subjected him to continual psychological harassment, with the aim of either getting him to practice self-censorship in his reporting, or to quit the country entirely. He says that FSB used techniques known as Zersetzung (literally “corrosion” or “undermining”) which were perfected by the East German Stasi.
It is also suspected, but not proven, that there is a FSB sub-department running operatives and or sympathizers to plant monitor and censor entries in the RUSSIAN WIKIPEDIA, as well as to plant monitor and censor selected entries related to Russia and Russians in the former Soviet space in English WIKIPEDIA. Evidence of the latter is present in patterns of entry revision and protection that systematically present a Russian view favourably and excise or remove critical accounts drawing attention to Russia's role as an imperial colonialist power within the former Soviet space past and present. Some of the pseudonyms behind such entries, changes revisions and locking that keep reappearing are "GARIK" "bbb23" and "Beaumain."
See also[edit | edit source]
- Chronology of Soviet secret police agencies
- Numbers station, shortwave radio stations of uncertain origin thought to broadcast coded messages
- OMON, special units of Russian police
- Federal Protective Service, government protection agency
- SORM, law that allows the FSB to monitor communications
- Active measures, a form of Soviet political warfare
- Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery
- Police of Russia
- Awards of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation
References[edit | edit source]
- Sakwa, Richard. Russian Politics and Society (4th ed.). p. 98.
- Presidential Decree No. 314, O sisteme i strukture federalnykh organov ispolnitelnoy vlasti, 9 March 2004; in Rossiyskaya gazeta, , 12 March 2004.
- THE MILITARY AND THE AUGUST 1991 COUP McNair Paper 34, The Russian Military's Role in Politics, January 1995.
- Gevorkian, Natalia (January 1993). 'The KGB: "They still need us"'. "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists". pp. 36–39. http://books.google.com/books?id=aQsAAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PP1&pg=PA36.
- Schneider, Eberhard. "The Russian Federal Security Service under President Putin". In Stephen White. Politics and the Ruling Group in Putin's Russia.
- On Organs of the Federal Security Service in the Russian Federation Russian Federation Federal Law No. 40-FZ. Adopted by the State Duma 22 February 1995. Signed by Russian Federation President B. Yeltsin and dated 3 April 1995.
- Mark Tran. Who is Vladimir Putin? Profile: Russia's new prime minister. Guardian Unlimited 9 August 1999.
- Baev, Pavel (2005). "Chechnya and the Russian Military". In Richard Sakwa. Chechnya: From Past to Future. Anthem Press.
- Фсб Закрытого Типа
- "Mass Dismissals at the FSB – Kommersant Moscow". Kommersant.com. http://www.kommersant.com/p704751/r_1/Mass_Dismissals_at_the_FSB/. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- Елена Ъ-Киселева, Николай Ъ-Сергеев, Михаил Ъ-Фишман. "Ъ – Кит и меч". Kommersant.ru. http://www.kommersant.ru/doc.html?docId=704751. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Russians claim killing of rebel Basayev, the Beslan butcher". The Independent. 2006-07-11. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/russians-claim-killing-of-rebel-basayev-the-beslan-butcher-407462.html.
- "Chechen rebel chief Basayev dies". BBC News. 2006-06-10. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5165456.stm.
- Biberman, Yelena (2008-12-06). "No Place to Be a Terrorist". Russia Profile. http://russiaprofile.org/politics/a1213293768.html.
- Saradzhyan, Simon (2010-03-31). "Eliminating Terrorists, Not Terror". International Relations and Security Network. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Current-Affairs/Security-Watch/Detail/?ots591=4888caa0-b3db-1461-98b9-e20e7b9c13d4&lng=en&id=114375.
- Saradzhyan, Simon (2010-12-23). "Russia's North Caucasus, the Terrorism Revival". International Relations and Security Network. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Current-Affairs/Security-Watch/Detail/?ots591=4888caa0-b3db-1461-98b9-e20e7b9c13d4&lng=en&id=125818.
- "Medvedev expands FSB powers". Russia Today. 2010-08-27. http://rt.com/politics/duma-fsb-bill-powers/.
- "Russia Busted 200 Spies Last Year – Medvedev". RIA Novosti. 2012-02-07. http://en.rian.ru/russia/20120207/171195509.html.
- Story to the Day of Checkist – by Vladimir Voronov, for grani.ru, December 2006.
- Counterintelligence Cases- by GlobalSecurity.org
- "Russia Convicts Military Officer of Spying For CIA". RIA Novosti. 2012-02-10. http://en.rian.ru/russia/20120210/171250546.html.
- "Case study: Igor Sutiagin". Hrw.org. http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/eca/russia/4.htm. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "AAAS Human Rights Action Network". Shr.aaas.org. http://shr.aaas.org/aaashran/alert.php?a_id=290. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- Russian Scientist Charged With Disclosing State Secret
- Oskar Kaibyshev convicted
- Researchers Throw Up Their Arms
- "Grigory Pasko site". Index.org.ru. http://www.index.org.ru/mayday/pasko_a.html. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- The Pasko case
- Russia Used 'Deception' To Kill Maskhadov, 8 March 2006 (RFE/RL)
- "17 particularly dangerous" (in Russian). Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 28 Jul. 2006. http://www.rg.ru/2006/07/28/terror-organizacii.html. Retrieved 13 Aug. 2006.
- "‘Terror’ list out; Russia tags two Kuwaiti groups". Arab Times. 13 Aug. 2006. http://www.arabtimesonline.com/arabtimes/kuwait/Viewdet.asp?ID=8534&cat=a. Retrieved 13 Aug. 2006.
- "Russia names 'terrorist' groups". BBC News. 28 Jul. 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5223458.stm. Retrieved 13 Aug. 2006.
- Peter Finn (15 January 2007). "In Russia, A Secretive Force Widens". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/11/AR2006121101434_2.html. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "Shamil was killed". Kavkaz Center. 10 July 2006. http://kavkazcenter.com/eng/content/2006/07/10/4942.shtml. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- "Mastermind of Russian school siege killed; Report: Chechen warlord dies in blast set by Russian agents". CNN. 10 July 2006. http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/07/10/russia.basayev/index.html. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Ликвидация с вариациями Template:Ru icon". Russian Newsweek. 23 July 2006. http://www.runewsweek.ru/theme/?tid=73&rid=1229.
- Benny Avni (13 July 2006). "Qatar Presents New Resolution on Israel". The New York Sun. http://www.nysun.com/foreign/qatar-presents-new-resolution-on-israel/35972/. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- Putin Calls On FSB To Modernize Border Guards by Victor Yasmann for Radio Free Europe, December 2005.
- "Status of the State Licensing System of Control over Exports of Nuclear Materials, Dual-use Commodities and Technologies in Russia: Manual for foreign associates in Russia," International Business Relations Corporation, Department of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Fuel Cycle (Moscow, 2002).
- Russian spy agency targeting western diplomats, Guardian
- "Murov biography (in Russian)". Fso.gov.ru. http://www.fso.gov.ru/struktura/p1_1.html. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Президентский полк". Ppolk.ru. http://www.ppolk.ru/content/view/192/114/. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "The sadistic poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko" - by Don Murray;- CBC News, 2006
- Russia After The Presidential Election by Mark A. Smith Conflict Studies Research Centre
- In Russia, A Secretive Force Widens – by P. Finn — Washington Post, 2006
- Harding, Luke (2011). Mafia State. London: Guardian Books. ISBN (HB) 978-0852-65247-3.
[edit | edit source]
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Profiles[edit | edit source]
- Federal Security Service (FSB) Library of Congress Country Studies (Data as of July 1996)
- Russian Security Services AXIS Information and Analysis (AIA)
- Federal Security Service (FSB) FAS Intelligence Resource Program
- Power Ministries / Intelligence – Russian Federation Post-Soviet Newsletter
- Federal Security Service (FSB) Agentura.Ru
- Federal Security Service (FSB) GlobalSecurity
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