The General Atomics MQ-1 Predator is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) used primarily by the United States Air Force (USAF) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Initially conceived in the early 1990s for reconnaissance and forward observation roles, the Predator carries cameras and other sensors but has been modified and upgraded to carry and fire two AGM-114 Hellfire missiles or other munitions. The aircraft, in use since 1995, has seen combat over Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bosnia, Serbia, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, and Somalia.

The USAF describes the Predator as a "Tier II" MALE UAS (medium-altitude, long-endurance unmanned aircraft system). The UAS consists of four aircraft or "air vehicles" with sensors, a ground control station (GCS), and a primary satellite link communication suite.[1] Powered by a Rotax engine and driven by a propeller, the air vehicle can fly up to Template:Convert/nmi to a target, loiter overhead for 14 hours, then return to its base.

Following 2001, the RQ-1 Predator became the primary unmanned aircraft used for offensive operations by the USAF and the CIA in Afghanistan and the Pakistani tribal areas; it has also been deployed elsewhere. Because offensive uses of the Predator are classified, U.S. military officials have reported an appreciation for the intelligence and reconnaissance-gathering abilities of UAVs but declined to publicly discuss their offensive use.[2]

Civilian applications have included border enforcement and scientific studies.

Development[edit | edit source]

File:MQ-1 Predator P1230014.jpg

At Paris Air Show 2007

File:RQ-1 Predator.jpg

A Predator flies on a simulated Navy aerial reconnaissance flight off the coast of southern California on December 5, 1995.

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Pentagon began experimenting with reconnaissance drones in the early 1980s. The CIA preferred small, lightweight, unobtrusive drones, in contrast to the United States Air Force (USAF). In the early 1990s, the CIA became interested in the "Amber", a drone developed by Leading Systems, Inc.[3] The company's owner, Abraham Karem, was the former chief designer for the Israeli Air Force, and had immigrated to the U.S. in the late 1970s. Karem's company had since gone bankrupt and been bought up by a U.S. defense contractor, from whom the CIA secretly bought five drones (now called the "GNAT"). Karem agreed to produce a quiet engine for the vehicle, which had until then sounded like "a lawnmower in the sky". The new development became known as the "Predator".[4][5]

General Atomics Aeronautical Systems (GA) was awarded a contract to develop the Predator in January 1994, and the initial Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) phase lasted from January 1994 to June 1996. The aircraft itself was a derivative of the GA Gnat 750. During the ACTD phase, three systems were purchased from GA, comprising twelve aircraft and three ground control stations.[6]

From April through May 1995, the Predator ACTD aircraft were flown as a part of the Roving Sands 1995 exercises in the U.S. The exercise operations were successful, and this led to the decision to deploy the system to the Balkans later in the summer of 1995.[6]

During the ACTD, Predators were operated by a combined Army/Navy team managed by the Navy's Joint Program Office for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (JPO-UAV) and first deployed to Gjader, Albania, for operations in the Former Yugoslavia in Spring 1995.[6]

By the start of the United States Afghan campaign in 2001, the USAF had acquired 60 Predators, and said it had lost 20 of them in action.[citation needed] Few if any of the losses were from enemy action, the worst problem apparently being foul weather, particularly icy conditions. Some critics within the Pentagon saw the high loss rate as a sign of poor operational procedures. In response to the losses caused by cold weather flight conditions, a few of the later Predators obtained by the USAF were fitted with de-icing systems, along with an uprated turbocharged engine and improved avionics. This improved "Block 1" version was referred to as the "RQ-1B", or the "MQ-1B" if it carried munitions; the corresponding air vehicle designation was "RQ-1L" or "MQ-1L".

The Predator system was initially designated the RQ-1 Predator. The "R" is the United States Department of Defense designation for reconnaissance and the "Q" refers to an unmanned aircraft system.[7] The "1" describes it as being the first of a series of aircraft systems built for unmanned reconnaissance. Pre-production systems were designated as RQ-1A, while the RQ-1B (not to be confused with the RQ-1 Predator B, which became the MQ-9 Reaper) denotes the baseline production configuration. These are designations of the system as a unit. The actual aircraft themselves were designated RQ-1K for pre-production models, and RQ-1L for production models.[8] In 2002, the USAF officially changed the designation to MQ-1 ("M" for multi-role) to reflect its growing use as an armed aircraft.[9]

Command and sensor systems[edit | edit source]

During the campaign in the former Yugoslavia, a Predator's pilot would sit with several payload specialists in a van near the runway of the drone's operating base. Direct radio signals controlled the drone's takeoff and initial ascent. Then communications shifted to military satellite networks linked to the pilot's van. Pilots experienced a delay of several seconds between moving their joysticks and the drone's response. But by 2000 improvements in communications systems (perhaps by use of the USAF's JSTARS system) made it possible, at least in theory, to fly the drone remotely from great distances. It was no longer necessary to use close-up radio signals during the Predator's takeoff and ascent. The entire flight could be controlled by satellite from any command center with the right equipment. The CIA proposed to attempt over Afghanistan the first fully remote Predator flight operations, piloted from the agency's headquarters at Langley.[10]

The Predator air vehicle and sensors are controlled from the ground station via a C-band line-of-sight data link or a Ku-band satellite data link for beyond-line-of-sight operations. During flight operations the crew in the ground control station is a pilot and two sensor operators. The aircraft is equipped with the AN/AAS-52 Multi-spectral Targeting System,[11] a color nose camera (generally used by the pilot for flight control), a variable aperture day-TV camera, and a variable aperture infrared camera (for low light/night). Previously, Predators were equipped with a synthetic aperture radar for looking through smoke, clouds or haze, but lack of use validated its removal to reduce weight and conserve fuel. The cameras produce full motion video and the synthetic aperture radar produced still frame radar images. There is sufficient bandwidth on the datalink for two video sources to be used at one time, but only one video source from the sensor ball can be used at any time due to design limitations. Either the daylight variable aperture or the infrared electro-optical sensor may be operated simultaneously with the synthetic aperture radar, if equipped.[citation needed]

All later Predators are equipped with a laser designator that allows the pilot to identify targets for other aircraft and even provide the laser-guidance for manned aircraft. This laser is also the designator for the AGM-114 Hellfire that are carried on the MQ-1.[citation needed]

Deployment methodology[edit | edit source]

File:MQ-1 Predator controls 2007-08-07.jpg

Predator operators at Balad Camp Anaconda, Iraq, August 2007

Each Predator air vehicle can be disassembled into six main components and loaded into a container nicknamed "the coffin." This enables all system components and support equipment to be rapidly deployed worldwide. The largest component is the ground control station and it is designed to roll into a C-130 Hercules. The Predator primary satellite link consists of a 6.1 meter (20 ft) satellite dish and associated support equipment. The satellite link provides communications between the ground station and the aircraft when it is beyond line-of-sight and is a link to networks that disseminate secondary intelligence. The RQ-1A system needs 1,500 by 40 meters (5,000 by 125 ft) of hard surface runway with clear line-of-sight to each end from the ground control station to the air vehicles. Initially, all components needed to be located on the same airfield.[citation needed]

Currently, the U.S. Air Force uses a concept called "Remote-Split Operations" where the satellite datalink is located in a different location and is connected to the GCS through fiber optic cabling. This allows Predators to be launched and recovered by a small "Launch and Recovery Element" and then handed off to a "Mission Control Element" for the rest of the flight. This allows a smaller number of troops to be deployed to a forward location, and consolidates control of the different flights in one location.[citation needed]

The improvements in the MQ-1B production version include an ARC-210 radio, an APX-100 IFF/SIF with mode 4, a glycol-weeping "wet wings" ice mitigation system, up-graded turbo-charged engine, fuel injection, longer wings, dual alternators as well as other improvements.[citation needed]

On May 18, 2006, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued a certificate of authorization which will allow the M/RQ-1 and M/RQ-9 aircraft to be used within U.S. civilian airspace to search for survivors of disasters. Requests had been made in 2005 for the aircraft to be used in search and rescue operations following Hurricane Katrina, but because there was no FAA authorization in place at the time, the assets were not used. The Predator's infrared camera with digitally-enhanced zoom has the capability of identifying the heat signature of a human body from an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft), making the aircraft an ideal search and rescue tool.[12]

The longest declassified Predator flight to date lasted for 40 hours, 5 minutes.[citation needed] The total flight time has reached 1 million hours as of April 2010.[13]

Armed version development[edit | edit source]

File:AGM-114 Hellfire hung on a Predator drone.JPEG

Close up of the Hellfire missile pylon, 2004.

The USAF handed the Predator over to the service's Big Safari office after the Kosovo campaign in order to accelerate its testing in a strike role, fitted with reinforced wings and stores pylons to carry munitions, as well as a laser designator. This effort led to a series of tests, on February 21, 2001, in which the Predator fired three Hellfire anti-armor missiles, scoring hits on a stationary tank with all three missiles. The scheme was put into service, with the armed Predators given the new designation of MQ-1A. Given that a Predator is very unobtrusive and the Hellfire is supersonic, such a combination gives little warning of attack.[8][14]

In the winter of 2000–2001, after seeing the results of Predator reconnaissance in Afghanistan (see below), Cofer Black, head of the CIA's Counterterrorist Center (CTC), became a "vocal advocate" of arming the Predator with missiles to target Osama bin Laden in the country. He also believed that CIA pressure and practical interest was causing the USAF's armed Predator program to be significantly accelerated. Black, and "Richard", who was in charge of the CTC's Bin Laden Issue Station, continued to press during 2001 for a Predator armed with Hellfire missiles.[citation needed]

Further weapons tests occurred between May 22 and June 7, 2001, with mixed results. While missile accuracy was excellent, there were some problems with missile fuzing...." In the first week of June, in the Nevada Desert, a Hellfire missile was successfully launched on a replica of bin Laden's Afghanistan Tarnak residence. A missile launched from a Predator exploded inside one of the replica's rooms; it was concluded that any people in the room would have been killed. However, the armed Predator did not go into action before the September 11 attacks.[15]

The USAF has also investigated using the Predator to drop battlefield ground sensors and to carry and deploy the "Finder" mini-UAV.[8]

NASA and NPGS unarmed research versions[edit | edit source]

Two unarmed versions, known as the General Atomics ALTUS were built, ALTUS I for the Naval Postgraduate School and ALTUS II for the NASA ERAST Project in 1997 and 1996, respectively.[16]

MQ-1C Warrior/Grey Eagle[edit | edit source]

Main article: General Atomics MQ-1C Grey Eagle

The U.S. Army selected the MQ-1C Warrior as the winner of the Extended-Range Multi-Purpose UAV competition August 2005, and the type became operational in 2009.

Operational history[edit | edit source]

File:General Atomics RQ-1A Predator USAF.jpg

RQ-1A Predator

As of March 2009, the U.S. Air Force had 195 MQ-1 Predators and 28 MQ-9 Reapers in operation.[17] Predators and Reapers fired missiles 244 times in Iraq and Afghanistan in 2007 and 2008. A report in March 2009 indicated that U.S. Air Force had lost 70 Predators in air crashes during its operational history. Fifty-five were lost to equipment failure, operator error, or weather. Four have been shot down in Bosnia, Kosovo, or Iraq. Eleven more were lost to operational accidents on combat missions.[18]

On March 3, 2011, the U.S. Air Force took delivery of its last MQ-1 Predator in a ceremony at General Atomics' flight operations facility. Since its first flight in July 1994, the MQ-1 series has accumulated over 1,000,000 flight hours[9] and maintained a fleet fully mission capable rate over 90 percent.[19]

Squadrons and operational units[edit | edit source]

During the initial ACTD phase, the United States Army led the evaluation program, but in April 1996, the Secretary of Defense selected the U.S. Air Force as the operating service for the RQ-1A Predator system. The 3rd Special Operations Squadron at Cannon Air Force Base, 11th, 15th, and 17th Reconnaissance Squadrons, Creech Air Force Base, Nevada, and the Air National Guard's 163d Reconnaissance Wing at March Air Reserve Base, California, currently operate the MQ-1.[citation needed]

In 2005, the U.S. Department of Defense recommended retiring Ellington Field's 147th Fighter Wing's F-16 Fighting Falcon fighter jets (a total of 15 aircraft), which was approved by the Base Realignment and Closure committee. They will be replaced with 12 MQ-1 Predator UAVs, and the new unit should be fully equipped and outfitted by 2009.[20] The wing's combat support arm will remain intact. The 272nd Engineering Installation Squadron, an Air National Guard unit currently located off-base, will move into Ellington Field in its place.

The 3rd Special Operations Squadron is currently the largest Predator squadron in the United States Air Force.[21]

U.S. Customs and Border Protection is operating an unknown number of Predators.[22]

On June 21, 2009, the United States Air Force announced that it was creating a new MQ-1 squadron at Whiteman Air Force Base that would become operational by February 2011.[23] In September 2011, the U.S. Air National Guard announced that despite current plans for budget cuts, they will continue to operate the Air Force’s combat UAVs, including MQ-1B.[24]

In the Balkans[edit | edit source]

File:Predator uav.JPG

A shot down RQ-1 Predator in the Museum of Aviation in Belgrade, Serbia

The first overseas deployment took place in the Balkans, from July to November 1995, under the name Nomad Vigil. Operations were based in Gjader, Albania. At least two Predators were lost during Nomad Vigil, one of them to hostile fire.[25][26]

Several others were destroyed in the course of Operation Noble Anvil, the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia:

  • One aircraft (serial 95-3017) was lost on April 18, 1999, following fuel system problems and icing.[27]
  • A second aircraft (serial 95-3019) was lost on May 13, when it was shot down by a Serbian Strela-1M surface-to-air missile over the village of Biba. A Serbian TV crew videotaped this incident.[28]
  • A third aircraft (serial number 95-3021) crashed on May 20 near the town of Talinovci, and Serbian news reported that this, too, was the result of anti-aircraft fire.[28][29]

Afghanistan[edit | edit source]

In 2000 a joint CIA-Pentagon effort was agreed to locate Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan. Dubbed "Afghan Eyes", it involved a projected 60-day trial run of Predators over the country. The first experimental flight was held on September 7, 2000. White House security chief Richard A. Clarke was impressed by the resulting video footage; he hoped that the drones might eventually be used to target Bin Laden with cruise missiles or armed aircraft. Clarke's enthusiasm was matched by that of Cofer Black, head of the CIA's Counterterrorist Center (CTC), and Charles Allen, in charge of the CIA's intelligence-collection operations. The three men backed an immediate trial run of reconnaissance flights. Ten out of the ensuing 15 Predator missions over Afghanistan were rated successful. On at least two flights, a Predator spotted a tall man in white robes at bin Laden's Tarnak Farm compound outside Kandahar; the figure was subsequently deemed to be "probably bin Laden".[30] By October 2000, deteriorating weather conditions made it difficult for the Predator to fly from its base in Uzbekistan, and the flights were suspended.[31]

File:Predator and Hellfire.jpg

Predator launching a Hellfire missile

On February 16, 2001 at Nellis Air Force base, a Predator successfully fired three Hellfire AGM-114C missiles into a target. The newly armed Predators were given the designation of MQ-1A. In the first week of June, 2001, a Hellfire missile was successfully launched on a replica of bin Laden's Afghanistan Tarnak residence built at a Nevada testing site. A missile launched from a Predator exploded inside one of the replica's rooms; it was concluded that any people in the room would have been killed. On September 4, 2001 (after the Bush cabinet approved a Qaeda/Taliban plan) CIA chief Tenet order the agency to resume reconnaissance flights. The Predators were now weapons-capable, but didn't carry missiles because the host country (presumably Uzbekistan) hadn't granted permission.

Subsequent to 9/11, approval was quickly granted to ship the missiles, and the Predator aircraft and missiles reached their overseas location on September 16, 2001. The first mission was flown over Kabul and Kandahar on September 18 without carrying weapons. Subsequent host nation approval was granted on October 7 and the first armed mission was flown on the same day.[32]

Pakistan[edit | edit source]

Main article: Drone attacks in Pakistan by the United States

Since at least 2004, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency has allegedly been operating the drones out of Shamsi airfield in Pakistan to attack militants in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas.[37][38]

Since May 2005 the MQ-1 Predator fitted with Hellfire missiles has been successfully used to kill a number of prominent al Qaeda operatives.[39] The use of the Predator has also resulted in a number of civilian deaths, particularly on January 13, 2006 when 18 civilians were killed. According to Pakistani authorities, the U.S. strike was based on faulty intelligence.[40][41][42]

Iraq[edit | edit source]


An MQ-1B Predator from the 361st Expeditionary Reconnaissance Squadron takes off July 9, 2008 from Ali Base, Iraq.

An Iraqi MiG-25 shot down a Predator performing reconnaissance over the no fly zone in Iraq on December 23, 2002. This was the first time in history a conventional aircraft and a drone had engaged each other in combat. Predators had been armed with AIM-92 Stinger air-to-air missiles, and were being used to "bait" Iraqi fighters, then run. In this incident, the Predator did not run, but instead fired one of its Stingers. The Stinger's heat-seeker became "distracted" by the MiG's missile and missed the MiG. The Predator was hit by the MiG's missile and destroyed.[43][44] Another two Predators had been shot down earlier by Iraqi SAMs, one of them on September 11, 2001.[45]

During the initial phases of the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq, a number of older Predators were stripped down and used as decoys to entice Iraqi air defenses to expose themselves by firing.[8][43] From July 2005 to June 2006, the 15th Reconnaissance Squadron participated in more than 242 separate raids, engaged 132 troops in contact-force protection actions, fired 59 Hellfire missiles; surveyed 18,490 targets, escorted four convoys, and flew 2,073 sorties for more than 33,833 flying hours.[46]

Iraqi insurgents intercepted video feeds, which were not encrypted, using a $26 piece of Russian software named SkyGrabber.[47][48] The encryption for the ROVER feeds were removed for performance reasons.[49][50]

Yemen[edit | edit source]

Main article: CIA activities in Yemen

On November 3, 2002, a Hellfire missile was fired at a car in Yemen, killing Qaed Salim Sinan al-Harethi, an al-Qaeda leader thought to be responsible for the USS Cole bombing. It was the first direct U.S. strike in the War on Terrorism outside Afghanistan.[39][51]

In 2004, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's (ABC-TV) international affairs program Foreign Correspondent investigated this targeted killing and the involvement of then U.S. Ambassador as part of a special report titled "The Yemen Option". The report also examined the evolving tactics and countermeasures in dealing with Al Qaeda inspired attacks.[52][53]

On 30 September 2011, a Hellfire fired from an American UAV killed Anwar al-Awlaki, an American-citizen cleric and Al Qaeda leader, in Yemen.[54] Also killed was Samir Khan, an American born in Saudi Arabia, who was editor of al-Qaeda's English-language webzine, Inspire (magazine).

Libya[edit | edit source]

U.S. Air Force MQ-1B Predators have been involved in reconnaissance and strike sorties in Operation Unified Protector. An MQ-1B fired its first Hellfire missile in the conflict on April 23, 2011, striking a BM-21 Grad.[55][56] There are also some suggestions that a Predator was involved in the final attack against Gaddafi.[57]

Predators returned to Libya in 2012, after the attack that killed the US Ambassador in Benghazi. MQ-9 Reapers were also deployed.[58]

Somalia[edit | edit source]

On 25 June 2011, US Predator drones attacked an al Shabaab training camp south of Kismayo. Ibrahim al-Afghani, a senior al Shabaab leader was rumored to be killed in the strike.[59]

Four Al-Shabaab fighters, including a white Kenyan, were killed in a drone strike late February 2012.[60]

United States/Mexico Border[edit | edit source]

Since 2005, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agency has flown Predator drones at an altitude of 15,000 feet for policing immigration, drug smugglers and terrorists along the U.S.-Mexico border.[61] The Predator B (MQ-9 Reaper), which can remain in flight for 30 hours, contains a globe on the bottom of the UAV that is responsible for monitoring illegal activity on the 2,000 mile border. [62][63] By 2016, the CBP is planning on having as many as 24 Predators that can be deployed anywhere in the continental U.S. within three hours.[61]

Other users[edit | edit source]

It has also been used by the Italian Air Force since the end of 2004.[citation needed] Two civil-registered unarmed MQ-1s have been operated by the Office of the National Security Advisor in the Philippines since 2006.[64]

The Predator has been licensed to sell to Egypt, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, and UAE.[65]

Variants[edit | edit source]

RQ-1 series
  • RQ-1A : Pre-production designation for the Predator system – four aircraft, Ground Control Station (GCS), and Predator Primary Satellite Link (PPSL).
    • RQ-1K : Pre-production designation for individual airframe.
  • RQ-1B : Production designation for the Predator UAV system.
    • RQ-1L : Production designation for individual airframe.
MQ-1 series
The M designation differentiates Predator airframes capable of carrying and deploying ordnance.
  • MQ-1A Predator : Early airframes capable of carrying ordnance (AGM-114 Hellfire ATGM or AIM-92 Stinger). Nose-mounted AN/ZPQ-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar removed.
  • MQ-1B Predator : Later airframes capable of carrying ordnance. Modified antenna fit, including introduction of spine-mounted VHF fin. Enlarged dorsal and ventral air intakes for Rotax engine.
    • MQ-1B Block 10 / 15 : Current production aircraft include updated avionics, datalinks, and countermeasures, modified v-tail planes to avoid damage from ordnance deployment, upgraded AN/AAS-52 Multi-Spectral Targeting System, wing deicing equipment, secondary daylight and infrared cameras in the nose for pilot visual in case of main sensor malfunction, and a 3 ft (0.91 m) wing extension from each wingtip. Some older MQ-1A aircraft have been partially retrofitted with some Block 10 / 15 features, primarily avionics and the modified tail planes.
Predator XP 
Export variant of the Predator designed specifically to be unable to carry weapons to allow for wider exportation opportunities. Markets for it are expected in the Middle East and Latin America.[66]
See General Atomics MQ-1C Grey Eagle

Note: although some sources refer to the General Atomics MQ-9 Reaper as the "Predator B", it is a separate, much larger aircraft and is not a variant of the RQ/MQ-1 Predator airframe design.

Operators[edit | edit source]

File:RQ-1 Predator in Iraq 2006-05-04 F-0000R-004.jpg

Three contract maintainers walk an RQ-1 into a shelter at Balad Air Base, Iraq in 2006.

File:UAV Predator Italian Air Force.JPG

RQ-1 Predator of the Italian Air Force

  • Turkish Air Force;[67] The Turkish Air Force has on order 6 MQ-1 Predators via the USA's Foreign Military Sales mechanism. The Turkish Air Force also operates 3 MQ-1 Predator systems on lease from the US as a stop gap measure as of 2011. The leased MQ-1s are under Turkish command (UAV Base Group Command) but operated by a joint Turkish-US unit.[68][69]
22x20px United States

Specifications[edit | edit source]

File:RQ-1B 3view.jpg

RQ-1B Predator 3-view drawing

File:MQ-1B 3view.jpg

MQ-1B Predator 3-view drawing

Template:Aircraft specifications

See also[edit | edit source]


References[edit | edit source]

  • Parts of this article are taken from the MQ-1 PREDATOR fact sheet.[72]
  • This article contains material that originally came from the web article Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Greg Goebel, which exists in the Public Domain.
  1. "USAF Tier system scheme". July 1, 1996. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  2. "Drone aircraft in a stepped-up war in Afghanistan and Pakistan". December 11, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  3. "". Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  4. Steve Coll, Ghost Wars (Penguin, 2005 edn), pp. 527–8 and 658 note 5.
  5. Finn, Peter, "Drones, now indispensable in war, began life in garage", Washington Post, reprinted in Japan Times, 27 December 2011, p. 6.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "FAS Intelligence Resource Program RQ-1 information". Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  7. "A Short Primer on Military Aircraft Designations" (doc). Hill Aerospace Museum. Retrieved November 7, 2008. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "Modern Endurance UAVs". Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 USAF MQ-1 factsheet
  10. Steve Coll, Ghost Wars (Penguin, 2005 edn), pp. 529–32.
  11. Predator RQ-1 / MQ-1 / MQ-9 Reaper - Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) - Air Force Technology
  12. SSgt Amy Robinson, "FAA Authorizes Predators to seek survivors". U.S. Air Force, August 2, 2006.
  13. "Predator-series UAVs surpass one million flight hours". April 9, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  14. "''Predator missile launch test totally successful''". May 30, 2008. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  15. Steve Coll, Ghost Wars (Penguin, 2005 edn), pp. 534, 548–9; The CIA and the Predator Drone (2000–1); Statement of CIA chief Tenet to 9/11 Commission, March 24, 2004, p. 15; Barton Gellman, "A Strategy's Cautious Evolution", Washington Post, Jan. 20, 2002, p. A01.
  16. "NASA Dryden Fact Sheet - ALTUS II". NASA. 19. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  17. Drew, Christopher (March 16, 2009). "Drones Are Weapons of Choice in Fighting Qaeda". New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2009. "Considered a novelty a few years ago, the Air Force's fleet has grown to 195 Predators and 28 Reapers, a new and more heavily armed cousin of the Predator." 
  18. Drew, Christopher (March 17, 2009). "Drones Are Weapons Of Choice In Fighting Qaeda". New York Times: p. 1. Retrieved March 18, 2009. 
  19. "Air Force accepts delivery of last Predator". General Atomics. March 7, 2011. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
  20. "Guard unit welcomes Predator, reconnaissance mission". Air Force Link. June 12, 2008. 
  21. "Factsheets : 3rd Special Operations Squadron". Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  22. "LA Now – Southern California". December 7, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  23. Officials choose bases for MQ-1, MQ-9 ground control stations
  24. "MQ-1B/RQ-4 Air Guard Operations". Retrieved 5 Sept 2011. 
  25. "The Pilotless Air Force? A Look At Replacing Human Operators With Advanced Technology" (PDF). Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  26. "University of Texas at Arlington". Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  27. "AFPN report". Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  28. 28.0 28.1 Balkan UAV loss report[dead link]
  29. Serbian TV screen captures showing serial number and wreckage of downed Predator[dead link]
  30. 9/11 Commission Final Report, chapter 6, pp. 189–90 (HTML version)
  31. Steve Coll, Ghost Wars, Penguin, 2005 edn., pp. 532, 534
  32. 9/11 Commission Report, chapter 6, pp. 213–14; Tenet Testimony to the 9/11 Commission, March 24, 2004, p. 16.
  33. Morring Jr., Frank, ed. (March 29, 2004), "Blame Game," Aviation Week & Space Technology, p. 21.
  34. Hasik, James (2008). Arms and Innovation: Entrepreneurship and Alliances in the Twenty-First-Century Defense Industry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 32-33. ISBN-13: 978-0226318868.
  35. Operation Anaconda – The Battle for Robert's Ridge, video documentary shown on the Military Channel, [1]
  36. "U.S. deaths in drone strike due to miscommunication, report says." LA Times, 14 October 2011.
  37. Page, Jeremy (February 19, 2009). "Google Earth Reveals Secret History Of US Base In Pakistan" (Newspaper article). The Times (London). Retrieved February 20, 2009. 
  38. Geens, Stefan (February 24, 2009). "About those missing Predator drones: It wasn't censorship after all". Retrieved May 4, 2009. 
  39. 39.0 39.1 "ABC news report". May 13, 2005. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  40. "USAToday article". USAToday article. January 17, 2006. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  41. Ali, Imtiaz; Ansari, Massoud (January 15, 2006). "article, "Pakistan fury as CIA airstrike on village kills 18"". London: Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  42. Whitlock, Craig (September 11, 2007). "The New Al-Qaeda Central: Far From Declining, the Network Has Rebuilt, With Fresh Faces and a Vigorous Media Arm". Washington Post. Retrieved September 11, 2007. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 "Pilotless Warriors Soar To Success". CBS News
  44. CBS video of shoot-down; also includes a brief clip of the May 13, 1999 Balkans shoot-down.
  45. Knights, Michael (2005).Cradle of conflict: Iraq and the birth of modern U.S. military power. Naval Institute Press, p. 242. ISBN 1-59114-444-2.
  46. Staff Sgt. D. Clare. "California Air National Guard embraces new mission". US Air Force, August 16, 2006.
  47. Gorman, Siobhan (December 17, 2009). "Insurgents Hack U.S. Drones -". Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  48. "Iraq rebels 'hack into US drones'". BBC News. December 17, 2009. Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  49. "Iraqi insurgents hacked Predator drone feeds, U.S. official indicates -". CNN. December 18, 2009. Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  50. "Fixes on the way for nonsecure UAV links – Air Force News, news from Iraq". Air Force Times. December 20, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  51. "''Washington Post'' article". November 8, 2002. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
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