Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence agency (abbreviated as ISI) has been involved in India, with one of the subsections of its Joint Intelligence Bureau department devoted to perform various operations in India and related to them. The Joint Signal Intelligence Bureau department has been also supporting Kashmiri militants in regards to communication. The Joint Intelligence North section of the Joint Counter-Intelligence Bureau wing deals particularly with India. In the 1950s the ISI's Covert Action Division supplied arms to insurgents in Northeast India. India has also accused the ISI of reinvigorating terrorism in the country via support to the pro-Khalistan militant groups such as International Sikh Youth Federation, in order to take revenge against India for its help in liberation of Bangladesh as well as to destabilize the Indian State. A report by India's Intelligence Bureau indicated that ISI was "desperately trying to revive Sikh" militant activity in India. The ISI is also allegedly active in printing and supplying counterfeit Indian rupee notes.
History[edit | edit source]
The ISI was created after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, due to Military Intelligence of Pakistan's weak performance. When Zia-ul-Haq seized the power in July 1977, he started his K2 (Kashmir and Khalistan) strategy, initiating the Operation Tupac. He gave ISI the duty to make Jammu and Kashmir a part of Pakistan, and to send the terrorists to Punjab. According to arrested ISI agents, the intelligence agency's aims are to confound Indian Muslims using Kashmiri Muslims; to extend the network of the ISI; to grow the framework of terrorists; to initiate 1993 Bombay bombings like attack in other cities, and to cause a state of insurgency in Muslim dominated regions. The ISI has allegedly set up bases in Nepal and Bangladesh, which are used for operations in North-East India.
Operations in Jammu and Kashmir[edit | edit source]
About Rs. 2.4 crore are paid out per month by the ISI, in order to fund its activities in Jammu and Kashmir. Pro-Pakistani groups were reportedly favored over other militant groups. Creation of six militant groups in Kashmir, which included Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), was aided by the ISI. According to American Intelligence officials, ISI is still providing protection and help to LeT. The Pakistan Army and ISI also LeT volunteers to surreptitiously penetrate from Pakistan Administrated Kashmir to Jammu and Kashmir. As of 2010, the degree of control that ISI retains over LeT’s operations is not known. The LeT was also reported to have been directed by the ISI to widen its network in the Jammu region where a considerable section of the populace comprised Punjabis.
Involvement in terrorist attacks[edit | edit source]
Involvement with 26/11 attacks[edit | edit source]
Zabiuddin Ansari, a Lashkar-e-Taiba militant accused for his involvement in the 2008 Mumbai attacks, said that ISI and Pakistani army officials were involved in planning the attacks and had attended the meetings. An Indian report, summarising intelligence gained from India's interrogation of David Headley, alleged that ISI had provided support for the attacks by providing funding for reconnaissance missions in Mumbai. The report included Headley's claim that Lashkar-e-Taiba's chief military commander, Zaki-ur-Rahman Lakhvi, had close ties to the ISI. He alleged that "every big action of LeT is done in close coordination with [the] ISI."
Involvement with Mumbai train blasts[edit | edit source]
Counterfeit Indian rupee notes[edit | edit source]
The ISI has been alleged to print counterfeit Indian rupee notes, which are believed to be printed in Muzaffarabad. In January 2000, the Nepal police raided Wasim Saboor's house, who was an official of the Pakistani embassy of Kathmandu. They found fifty thousand Indian rupee notes, each of Rs.50 denomination.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Inter-Services Intelligence activities in Afghanistan
- Inter-Services Intelligence support for militants
References[edit | edit source]
- Pike, John (25 July 2002). "Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence". Federation of American Scientists. http://www.fas.org/irp/world/pakistan/isi/. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Daily Describes Activities of ISI in India". The Pioneer. Federation of American Scientists. 30 June 1999. http://www.fas.org/irp/world/pakistan/isi/india.html. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Raman, B. "PAKISTAN'S INTER-SERVICES INTELLIGENCE (ISI)". http://www.acsa.net/isi/index.html. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF) South Asia Terrorism Portal article". The Institute for Conflict Management. http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/punjab/terrorist_outfits/ISYF.htm. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Mehtab Ali Shah (1997). The foreign policy of Pakistan: ethnic impacts on diplomacy, 1971-1994. I.B.Tauris. pp. 149–. ISBN 978-1-86064-169-5. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=7czT4fipTyoC&dq.
- Nanjappa, Vicky (10 June 2008). "200 Pak organisations raise funds for terror: IB" (in Englilsh). Rediff.com. http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/jun/10vicky.htm. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- M. G. Chitkara (1 January 2003). Combating Terrorism. APH Publishing. p. 296. ISBN 978-81-7648-415-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=3A0DG8caV6AC&pg=PA296. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence". GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/pakistan/isi.htm. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- Ghosh 2000 pg.3
- Ghosh 2000 pg.8
- Does Obama understand his biggest foreign-policy challenge?, Salon.com, 2008-12-12
- Pakistani Militants Admit Role in Siege, Official Says, The New York Times, 2009-01-01
- Ashley J. Tellis (11 March 2010). "Bad Company – Lashkar-e-Tayyiba and the Growing Ambition of Islamist Militancy in Pakistan" (PDF). Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. http://www.internationalrelations.house.gov/111/tel031110.pdf.
- Curtis, Lisa (2010-03-11). "Bad Company: Lashkar-e-Tayyiba and the Growing Ambition of Islamist Militancy in Pakistan". Testimony to US Congress Committee on Foreign Affairs. Washington, DC.
- "Saudis helped India nab 26/11 handler Abu Jundal". The Times of India. 25 June 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-06-25. http://www.webcitation.org/68hCOOW5G. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Indian gov't: Pakistan spies tied to Mumbai siege". news.yahoo.com. Associated Press. 19 October 2010. Archived from the original on 21 October 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20101021114840/http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101019/ap_on_re_as/as_india_mumbai_attack. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "Report: Pakistan Spies Tied to Mumbai Siege". Associated Press. Fox News. 19 October 2010. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/10/19/indian-report-pakistan-spies-tied-mumbai-siege/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+foxnews%2Fworld+%28Internal+-+World+Latest+-+Text%29. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- CNN (30 September 2006). "Pakistan spy agency behind Mumbai bombings". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/asiapcf/09/30/india.bombs/index.html?section=cnn_world#. Retrieved 30 September 2006.
- Ghosh 2000 pg.101
- Ghosh 2000 pg.102
Notes[edit | edit source]
- Srikanta Ghosh (1 January 2000). Pakistan's ISI: Network of Terror in India. APH Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7648-178-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=d1dGQBDrGxYC&pg=PA121. Retrieved 28 June 2012.