The Inter-Services Intelligence(ISI) agency has long been accused of using designated terrorist groups and Militants to conduct Proxy wars against its neighbors.[1][2][3] James Forest says there has been increasing proof from counter terrorism organizations that militants and the Taliban continue to receive assistance from the ISI, as well as the establishment of camps to train terrorists on Pakistani territory.[4] All external operations are carried out under the supervision of the S Wing of the ISI.[5] The agency is divided into Eight divisions.[6] Joint Intelligence/North(JIN) is responsible for conducting operations in Jammu and Kashmir and Afghanistan.[7] The Joint Signal Intelligence Bureau (JSIB) provide support with communications to groups in Kashmir.[7] According to Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon both former members of the National Security Council the ISI acted as a "kind of terrorist conveyor belt" radicalizing young men in the Madrassas in Pakistan and delivering them to training camps affiliated with or run by Al-Qaeda and from there moving them into Jammu and Kashmir to launch attacks.[8] In 2009, then President Asif Zardari admitted at a conference in Islamabad that in the past Pakistan had created terrorist groups as a strategic tool for use in its geostrategic agenda.[9]

Support for Militants[edit | edit source]

According to Stephen P. Cohen and John Wilson the ISI's aid to and creation of designated terrorist groups and religious extremist groups is well documented.[10][11] The ISI have been accused of having close ties to Lashkar-e-Taiba who carried out the attacks in Mumbai in 2008.[12] The ISI have also given aid to Hizbul Mujahideen.[13] Terrorism expert Gus Martin has said the ISI has a long history of supporting designated terrorist groups and pro Independence groups operating in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir which fight against Indian interests.[14][15] The ISI also helped with the founding of the group Jaish-e-Mohammed.[16]

The Haqqani network[edit | edit source]

The ISI have close links to the Haqqani network[17] and contribute heavily to their funding.[18] It is widely believed the suicide attack on the Indian embassy in Kabul was planned with the help of the ISI[19] A report in 2008 from the Director of National Intelligence stated that the ISI provides intelligence and funding to help with attacks against the International Security Assistance Force, the Afghan government and Indian targets.[20]

Assam[edit | edit source]

It has been estimated by the Institute for Conflict Management that there are 36 extremist groups operating in Assam against Indian interests. According to the Institute the ISI sponsor the Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam(MULTA) and the United Liberation Front of Assam.[21]

Naxalites[edit | edit source]

Indian intelligence agency's have claimed they have undeniable proof of ISI involvement with the Naxalites. A classified report accessed by the newspaper Asian Age said "the ISI in particular wants Naxals to cause largescale damage to infrastructure projects and industrial units operating in the interior parts of the country where ISI’s own terror network is non-existent".[22] In 2010 police in Bangalore claimed to have found evidence that the ISI were using local mafia types, Chhota Shakeel and Dawood Ibrahim to establish links with the Naxalites.[23]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Bajoria, Jayshree; Eben Kaplan (May 4, 2011). "The ISI and Terrorism: Behind the Accusations". Council on Foreign Relations. 
  2. Laruelle, Marlène; Sébastien Peyrouse (2011). Mapping Central Asia: Indian Perceptions and Strategies. Ashgate. p. 203. ISBN 978-1409409854. 
  3. Hussain, Zahid (2008). Frontline Pakistan: The Struggle With Militant Islam. Columbia University Press. p. VII. ISBN 978-0231142250. 
  4. Forest, James J. F. (2007). Countering Terrorism and Insurgency in the 21st Century: International Perspectives. Praeger. p. 83. ISBN 978-0275990343. 
  5. McGrath, Kevin (2011). Confronting Al Qaeda: new strategies to combat terrorism. Naval Institute Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-1591145035. 
  6. Grare, Frédéric (2009). Reforming the Intelligence Agencies in Pakistan’s Transitional Democracy. Carnegie Endowment. p. 15. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Camp, Dick (2011). Boots on the Ground: The Fight to Liberate Afghanistan from Al-Qaeda and the Taliban, 2001-2002. Zenith. p. 38. ISBN 978-0760341117. 
  8. Caldwell, Dan; Robert Williams (2011). Seeking Security in an Insecure World (2nd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 103–104. ISBN 978-1442208032. 
  9. "Pakistani president Asif Zardari admits creating terrorist groups". The Daily Telegraph. 2009. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/pakistan/5779916/Pakistani-president-Asif-Zardari-admits-creating-terrorist-groups.html. 
  10. Cohen, Stephen P. (2011). The Future of Pakistan. Brookings Institution. p. 130. ISBN 978-0815721802. 
  11. Wilson, John (2005). Terrorism in Southeast Asia: implications for South Asia Countering the financing of terrorism. Pearson. pp. 80. ISBN 978-8129709981. 
  12. Green, M. Christian (2011). Religion and Human Rights. Chapter 21: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-973345-3. 
  13. Sisk, Timothy D. (2008). International mediation in civil wars: bargaining with bullets. Routledge. pp. 172. ISBN 978-0415477055. 
  14. Martin, Gus (2009). Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues. Sage. pp. 189. ISBN 978-1412970594. 
  15. Palmer, Monte (2007). At the Heart of Terror: Islam, Jihadists, and America's War on Terrorism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 196. ISBN 978-0742536036. 
  16. Wilson, John (2005). Terrorism in Southeast Asia: implications for South Asia Countering the financing of terrorism. Pearson. pp. 84. ISBN 978-8129709981. 
  17. Cordesman, Anthony H.; Adam Mausner, David Kasten (2009). Winning in Afghanistan: creating effective Afghan security forces. Center for Strategic and International Studies. ISBN 978-0892065660. 
  18. Shanty, Frank (2011). The Nexus: International Terrorism and Drug Trafficking from Afghanistan (1st ed.). Praeger. p. 191. ISBN 978-0313385216. 
  19. Williams, Brian Glyn (2011). Afghanistan Declassified: A Guide to America's Longest War. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0812244038. 
  20. Aid, Matthew M. (2012). Intel Wars: The Secret History of the Fight Against Terror. Bloomsbury. p. 113. ISBN 978-1608194810. 
  21. MacDonald, David B. (2007). Karl R. DeRouen, Paul Bellamy. ed. International Security and the United States: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Praeger. p. 318. ISBN 978-0275992545. 
  22. Sharma, Rajnish (1 March 2012). "Intel reveals ISI-Naxal link". Asian Age. http://www.asianage.com/india/intel-reveals-isi-naxal-link-583. 
  23. Ibrahim, Dawood (14 August 2010). "ISI using D-company in bid to tap Naxalites". Times of India. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2010-08-14/india/28321086_1_naxal-leaders-altaf-chhota-shakeel. 
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