Jandarma İstihbarat ve Terörle Mücadele or Jandarma İstihbarat Teşkilatı (abbr. JİTEM or JİT, in Template:Lang-en or Template:Lang-en) is a controversial wing of the Turkish Gendarmerie. It is claimed that JITEM was active in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict. After the Susurluk scandal, former prime ministers Bülent Ecevit, and Mesut Yılmaz have confirmed the existence of JITEM.
According to Murat Belge of Istanbul Bilgi University, who says he was tortured in 1971 by its founder, Veli Küçük, JITEM is an embodiment of the deep state. In other words, it is used by "the Establishment" to enforce alleged national interests. It is also said to be the military wing of Ergenekon, an underground nationalist organization. In 2008 long-maintained official denials of JITEM’s existence started collapsing in the courts, as ex-members of Turkey’s "deep state" security apparatus testify to their participation in covert and illegal activities over the last few decades as part of the ongoing "Ergenekon" investigation.
- 1 Evidence for existence
- 2 Dissolution or Legalization?
- 3 Modus Operandi
- 4 Actions
- 5 Court cases with JITEM involvement
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Evidence for existence[edit | edit source]
JITEM was subjected to parliamentary scrutiny during the Susurluk scandal, when commanders in the Gendarmerie repeatedly denied the existence of an overarching intelligence organization within the Gendarmerie. Susurluk commission member Fikri Sağlar said that the commanders denied its existence because the Gendarmerie formally acquired the legal capacity to conduct intelligence operations in 2005 (with Law 5397). The author of the Prime Ministry Inspection Board report, Kutlu Savaş, said JITEM was created on Gendarmerie Commander Hulusi Sayın's watch (1981–1985). The Parliamentary Investigation Committee’s report on Unsolved Political Murders in Various Regions of Our Country (10/90) dated 12 October 1995 and the summary by Istanbul National Security Court General Prosecutor dated 30 January 1997 are also worthy of consideration.
Findings about JİTEM and Ersever were also published by researchers and journalists. One of the first and most detailed of these was by Soner Yalçın. Yalçın managed to interview Ersever, subsequently publishing the interviews in his book Binbaşı Ersever’in İtirafları (Confessions of Major Ersever. Seven months after the release of the Susurluk Report, a book entitled: Cem Ersever ve JİTEM Gerçeği (Cem Ersever and the JITEM Fact), written by journalist Çetin Ağaşe, a friend of the Ersever family, was published. The appendix of the book contains documents such as the 1994 phone directory of the General Command of Gendarmerie, which contained the numbers of the JİTEM Group Commander and JİTEM units in each city. This was further proof of JİTEM’s official existence and of Ersever’s position within the chain of command.
The first person to write about JİTEM was journalist Ayşe Önal for Ateş magazine on 2 July 1994. Önal had learned about it from Veli Küçük after being introduced to him through MIT spy and fellow journalist, Tuncay Güney. Önal and Küçük's meeting did not go well, and Önal vowed to write about it. She followed through, and was promptly fired, along with nineteen of her coworkers.
Revelations have recently come from an informant named Abdülkadir Aygan (a former PKK member recruited by JİTEM, now a political refugee in Sweden) that it was founded by retired general Veli Küçük, who is currently arrested in the Ergenekon investigations. Other people allegedly involved in its founding are Ahmet Cem Ersever, Arif Doğan, Hasan Kundakçı, Hüseyin Kara, Hulusi Sayın and Aytekin Özen, according to Aygan. Küçük confirmed Aygan's allegations about his cofounding the organization.
After being taken into custody, Arif Doğan admitted to being a founder of the organization, originally known as the Intelligence Group Command (Template:Lang-tr), and that in 1990 he handed the reins to Veli Küçük. In 2005 he had denied the very existence of such an organization. After his release from prison Arif Doğan spoke to journalists of the news channel Haber Türk in September 2010 and said that he alone had founded JİTEM and had "frozen" it in 1990. Concerning the structure of JİTEM Colonel Arif Doğan said: "My staff was 10,000, including 620 women. They participated in operations and got 3,000 Lira for each head."
According to figures of the Justice Ministry about 1,950 PKK militants became confessors after arrest. Unofficial figures put the number of confessors that were used and paid in the fight against the PKK at 500.
Dissolution or Legalization?[edit | edit source]
It has repeatedly been claimed that JITEM was dissolved. One of the first was Prime Minister Mesut Yılmaz. He stated on 22 January 1998 on the Arena program on Kanal D hosted by Uğur Dündar that JİTEM did not exist any longer. When İsmail Hakkı Karadayı assumed the role of chief of general staff, (30 August 1994 – 30 August 1998), news stating the dissolution of JİTEM were leaked to the press. The last declaration about JİTEM’s dissolution came from the former Commander of the Gendarmerie in the State of Emergency Region (Olağanüstü Hal, OHAL), retired Lieutenant- General Altay Tokat. Tokat stated in his interview with the newspaper Zaman that JİTEM was a “public disclosure of an intelligence unit that fought against the PKK in the OHAL region” and that it had “fulfilled its role and was dissolved".
The former chair of Diyarbakır Bar Association, Sezgin Tanrıkulu, however claims that JITEM was not dissolved, but the cadres were not active at the moment.
JİTEM was made a legal entity through Article 5 of the Law 2803 on the Establishment, Duties and Jurisdiction of Gendarmerie and Article 4 of the Law Concerning the Transfer of Our Borders, Coasts and Territorial Waters’ Protection and Anti-Smuggling Activities to the Ministry of Internal Affairs No. 6815.
The gendarmerie intelligence, previously known as JİTEM or JİT, finally gained legal status with the Law Concerning Amendments to Some Laws No. 5397, accepted on 3 July 2005, effective since 23 July 2005 thus becoming the Gendarmerie Intelligence Department within the General Command of Gendarmerie. This law authorised the gendarmerie to carry out technical stakeouts.
Modus Operandi[edit | edit source]
Among the alleged members are ex-PKK-operatives (Template:Lang-tr), besides non-commissioned officers and a few officers of the Gendarmerie. While Aygan listed several units as part of JITEM such as
the Gendarmerie General Command, the Intelligence Command, the Joint Group Command, the Regional Group Commands (of which there are seven), the Team Commands and small clandestine cells the lawyer Tahir Elçi, who is acting on behalf of victims of JITEM said:
"It is not possible to completely know the organizational structure of JITEM; but it is understood that it was organized within the Gendarmerie, the centre being in Ankara and having group commands mostly in the South-East within the Regimental Commands of the provinces. They took their orders from the centre in Ankara and conducted three folded activities: gather intelligence, interrogate and carry out operations."
JİTEM carried out its activities using the "staff system" (eleman sistemi) and technical stakeout approaches. The information gathered was analysed, became intelligence and submitted to the Intelligence Group Command. Every report was assembled by the Intelligence Group Command and operation teams were dispatched accordingly.
Actions[edit | edit source]
Fight against PKK[edit | edit source]
JITEM was founded to counter the guerilla tactics of the PKK, but its units never directly clashed with armed groups of the PKK in the rural areas. They made use of informers to kill PKK adherents, raid villages in guerilla dressing, detain, torture or make people "disappear". Intelligence units did not have the necessary mechanisms in place to fight the PKK in open country. The inefficiency in the intelligence network made it impossible for land forces to perform specific operations, to prevent terror raids and to develop a strategy against PKK front activities.
The spokesperson of the Movement of Kurdish Democrats Ahmet Acar alleged that JİTEM fomented infighting in the PKK, while ensuring the perpetuation of both of the PKK, and by extension, itself. Kurdish-Turkish politician Abdülmelik Fırat maintained that JİTEM is connected to the PKK, while fighting it at the same time.
Political killings[edit | edit source]
Numerous people who claim to be or are purported to be JİTEM operatives have been accused of crimes such as kidnapping, intimidation, and extra-judicial killings of PKK members. Former JİTEM operative Aygan estimated that 80% of these killings were done by JİTEM. JİTEM interrogators are especially brutal since they belong to an organization that ostensibly does not exist, and hence they are not accountable. Aygan says that detainees are invariably killed. He provided about 30 names of victims.
Tuncay Güney, a former spy for the National Intelligence Organization who infiltrated JİTEM, alleged that Veli Küçük's men, working for JİTEM, killed people using acid and buried the corpses in wells belonging to the state-owned Turkish Pipeline Corporation, BOTAŞ. Some have responded to the Şırnak Bar's request for witnesses and families of victims to step forward. Ergenekon defendant Levent Ersöz has also been named in connection with the incidents, in Silopi.
There are no clear figures on the number of political killings in South-East Anatolia. According to intelligence units, 1550 unsolved murders were committed between 1990-2000 although the PKK claims that the accurate number exceeds 2000. The Human Rights Association estimates that between 1989 and 2008 JİTEM was involved in 5000 unsolved killings of journalists, human rights defenders, intellectuals and political activists and was responsible for 1,500 cases of "disappearances". Former chair of Diyarbakır Bar Association Sezgin Tanrıkulu put the figures above 4,000, close to 5,000. He stated that one JITEM operative, Ibrahim Babat, alone had been charged with 61 killings. In a documentary of Mehmet Hatman the figure of 4653 unsolved political killings between 1991 and 2000 was mentioned.
High profile killings[edit | edit source]
Some murders received a lot of press coverage. One of it was the killing of Gaffar Okan, Diyarbakir Chief of Police and five police officers on 24 January 2001. Aygan said that only official organizations such as JİTEM are capable of doing this. Further cases are:
Vedat Aydın[edit | edit source]
Vedat Aydın, the Diyarbakır branch chairman of the now-defunct People’s Labor Party (HEP), was found dead on a road near Malatya on 7 July 1991, two days after armed men had taken him from his home in Diyarbakir. The widow Sükran Aydın thinks her husband’s murder was a turning point and that there was a sudden increase in the number of unsolved murders in the country’s Southeast following his death. She believes that a clandestine unit within the gendarmerie was responsible for the murder. Only 18 years after the killing the public prosecutor in Diyarbakir opened a file seeking the detention of nine JITEM members including the Major Aytekin Özen.
Musa Anter[edit | edit source]
Aygan said he had been part of a unit, alongside Cem Ersever and Arif Doğan, which had assassinated 72-year-old Kurdish writer Musa Anter in 1992 in Diyarbakir. Turkey was found guilty of this murder in 2006 by the ECHR, who sentenced Turkey to a fine of 28,500 euros.
Ahmet Cem Ersever[edit | edit source]
Former JİTEM commander Cem Ersever was assassinated in November 1993. Aygan alleges that Arif Doğan and Veli Küçük's superiors in Ankara ordered the assassination in order to take control of JİTEM from Ersever.
Drugs and weapons trafficking[edit | edit source]
JİTEM's chief, Arif Doğan, was tried in the frame of the Yüksekova Gang (aka "the gang with uniforms"). According to Today's Zaman, the "Yüksekova Gang was an illegal organization formed in the Yüksekova district of Hakkari, headed by three high-ranking military personnel and various politicians that smuggled drugs and weapons." Its activities were first revealed in 1996, in the aftermath of the Susurluk scandal. Its activities "are only one part of the JİTEM activities" that have been sent to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). All of the local court prison sentences concerning the Yüksekova Gang were cancelled by the High Court of Appeals of Turkey, leading the ECHR to fine Turkey 103,000 Euro for its decisions about the Yüksekova Gang.
Relying on a document as an attachment to the indictment in the Ergenekon case Fırat News Agency presented background on smuggling of JİTEM staff between 1981 and 1990. Details were mentioned on arms trafficking, drug smuggling, and cross border trafficking of electronic devices.
Court cases with JITEM involvement[edit | edit source]
İlhan Cihaner, prosecutor in İdil (Şırnak province) was the first to point at JİTEM in an indictment of 1997. He held the defendants including civil servants, confessors and others responsible for killings, bombings and "disappearances". Defendant No. 1 was Ahmet Cem Ersever and defendant No. 2 was Arif Doğan.
An indictment prepared by Diyarbakır Public Prosecutor Mithat Özcan dated 29 March 2005 charged eight PKK confessors, namely Mahmut Yıldırım (aka Yeşil), Abdülkadir Aygan, Muhsin Gül, Fethi Çetin, Kemal Emlük, Saniye Emlük, Yüksel Uğur and Abdülkerim Kırca. These people were suspected of being JİTEM members and were charged with eight unsolved murders, namely the murders of Harbi Arman, Lokman Zuğurli, Zana Zuğurli, Servet Aslan, Şahabettin Latifeci, Ahmet Ceylan, Mehmet Sıddık Etyemez and Abdülkadir Çelikbilek between the years 1992-1994. The case was transferred to a military court. The court case went through different stages. In September 2010 the number of defendants had risen to 15. During the hearing at Diyarbakir Heavy Penal Court No. 6 of 3 September 2010 the defendants Ali Ozansoy and Adil Timurtaş (both confessors) were present for the first time. Earlier the Ministry of Interior had refused to inform the Court of the new names of the defendants.
Mehmet Şerif Avşar was abducted in Diyarbakir on 22 April 1994 and two weeks later found dead. The kidnappers, PKK confessor Mesut Mehmetoğlu and village guards hid in a building reportedly belonging to JITEM. On 20 March 2001 six defendants were convicted for their involvement in the killing. The case was raised with the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). The court found a violation of Article 2 of the European Convention of Human Rights.
Abdülkadir Aygan is one of the 11 or 12 defendants charged with having killed Hacı Ahmet Zeyrek (in Silopi 1989), JITEM staff member Mehmet Bayar (25 June 1990) and Tahsin Sevim, Hasan Utanç and Hasan Caner on 16 September 1989. A criminal court in Diyarbakır ruled in 2006 that the defendants were military personnel and should be tried in a military court.
According to the report of Kutlu Savaş PKK confessor Hayrettin Toka had been involved in many killings of JİTEM. He was apprehended in Karamürsel in December 2005 and taken to Diyarbakir. A judge released him on 16 January 2006. In his testimony Toka stated that he had been imprisoned for 12.5 years.
On 11 September 2009 Diyarbakır Heavy Penal Court No. 6 started to hear the case of 7 defendants charged with 20 killings that had been committed between 1993 and 1995 when Colonel Cemil Temizöz had been the commander of Cizre Gendarmerie Station in Şırnak province, Cizre district. On 17 September 2010 the 18th hearing was held.
References[edit | edit source]
- Ayik, Zeki (1997-01-17). "PKK confessors turn into state hitmen". Turkish Daily News. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. http://tdnarchives.blogspot.com/1997/01/pkk-confessors-turn-into-state-hitmen.html.
- 1998 Report, Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, chapter II, "SUSURLUK SCANDAL: Counter-Guerrilla Affairs", p.39-86 (see quotation on p.40): "It seems that some illegal methods were employed within the state during the anti-terrorist struggle. In the report, some military people are mentioned, but the report implies that the army as a whole was not involved in such affairs. I am glad to hear that. If the army had been involved in such affairs, it would have been highly difficult for us to solve the problem. On the other hand, the situation of the Gendarmerie is a bit complex because its affiliation is to both the army and the Ministry of Interior Affairs. That's an outcome of the report. JİTEM seems corrupted."
- 1998 Report, Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, chapter II, "SUSURLUK SCANDAL: Counter-guerilla Affairs", p.46: The report prepared by Prime Ministry Inspection Board Deputy Chairman Kutlu Savaş mentioned JİTEM as involved in gang activities. However, JİTEM is among the "state secrets" of Prime Minister Mesut Yılmaz. Yılmaz accepted the existence of JİTEM but argued that "military officials were not involved and they intervened when they learned about it." Yılmaz carefully tried to relieve military officials, the Gendarmerie's former Commander General Teoman Koman from responsibility. Deputy Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit said, "JİTEM is mentioned in the report. However, the Gendarmerie and JİTEM are not equal to the army."
- Usul, Safile (2008-09-08). "'Veli Küçük bana işkence yaptı'" (in Turkish). Gazeteport. http://www.gazeteport.com.tr/GUNCEL/NEWS/GP_280409. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
- Düzel, Neşe (2008-01-28). "2009’da kıyamet gibi kan akacaktı" (in Turkish). Taraf. http://www.taraf.com.tr/haber.asp?id=1177. Retrieved 2008-08-14. "Derin devlet gene askerî bünye içinde oluşuyor ama artık derin devlet MİT değil. Bugün derin devlet JİTEM."
- "Assassinations lead to JITEM". Sabah. 2008-08-25. http://english.sabah.com.tr/169DC79975FD4447B0B37835E0550F59.html. Retrieved 2008-08-26. "JITEM, considered to be the ancestor of the Ergenekon organization...." [dead link]
- Kuseyri, Murat (2008-10-04). "JİTEM Ergenekon’un askeri kanadıdır" (in Turkish). Evrensel. http://www.evrensel.net/haber.php?haber_id=38255. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- Jamestown Foundation Turkey’s Gendarmerie: Reforming a Frontline Unit in the War on Terrorism, Publication: Terrorism Monitor Volume: 6 Issue: 22, November 25, 2008 by Andrew McGregor
- "JİTEM vardır!" (in Turkish). Milliyet. 2006-02-16. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/2006/02/16/guncel/gun01.html. Retrieved 2008-07-25. "Jandarma Genel Komutanı Teoman Koman: 'Jandarma teşkilatı içinde JİTEM adında legal ya da illegal bir örgüt kurulmamıştır, yoktur. Ama jandarma dışında bu ismi kullanıp kanunsuz işler yapan bir grup vardır'."
- Yedig, Serhan (2005-11-20). "Bir var bir yok. Hem var hem yok JİTEM" (in Turkish). Hürriyet. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/pazar/3542856.asp?gid=59. Retrieved 2008-09-05. "Aynı dönemde Genelkurmay Başkanı Doğan Güreş, Jandarma Genel Komutanı Teoman Koman başta olmak üzere birçok yetkili ‘JİTEM adında bir örgüt hiç olmadı’ deyip kamuoyunun ruhuna serin su serpmişti."
- Yedig, Serhan (2005-11-20). "Bir var bir yok. Hem var hem yok: JİTEM" (in Turkish). Hürriyet. http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/pazar/3542856.asp. Retrieved 2008-12-25.
- Sağlar, Fikri (2008-12-22). "Ergenekon’da kara göründü mü?" (in Turkish). Star. http://www.stargazete.com/acikgorus/ergenekon-da-kara-gorundu-mu-156696.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-27. "JİTEM yasal bir kuruluş olmadığı için ‘yok’ demek zorundalar. Aksini söylerlerse hepsi birden suçlu olurlar."
- The article INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES OF THE GENDARMERIE CORPS (JİTEM & JİT) by Ertan Beşe, Assistant Professor, Police Academy, Faculty of Security Sciences can be found in the ALMANAC TURKEY 2005: SECURITY SECTOR AND DEMOCRATIC OVERSIGHT (DCAF) - TESEV (Turkish Economic an Social Studies Foundation) SERIES IN SECURITY SECTOR STUDIES, ALMANAC TURKEY 2005, ISBN 975-8112-79-1 Link to the pdf-file pages 172-189
- Önal, Ayşe (2008-07-24). "Veli Küçük beni işten kovdurttu" (in Turkish). Yeni Şafak. http://yenisafak.com.tr/Gundem/?t=24.07.2008&c=1&i=130671. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- Ünlü, Ferhat (2008-08-25). "Hem PKK'nın hem de JİTEM'in itirafçısı Aygan" (in Turkish). Sabah. http://www.sabah.com.tr/2008/08/25/haber,9CF3200315EB4BD5AD6E9FA2AAE87B4B.html. Retrieved 2008-08-27. "Ben hem PKK'nın hem de JİTEM'in itirafçısıyım. Ama hain değilim, kendimi hain hissetmiyorum. Çünkü hainlerin yaptıklarını açıkladım." [dead link]
- Okkan assassination linked to JİTEM, Today's Zaman, 27 August 2008
- "Cem Ersever'in kayıp arşivi Veli Küçük'ün evinden çıktı iddiası" (in Turkish). Zaman. 2008-01-31. http://www.zaman.com.tr/haber.do?haberno=645648. Retrieved 2008-08-19. "Ben JİTEM'in kurucusu olarak biliniyorum. Kanunda yeri olan bir birimdir. Bu bende bir meslek hastalığı olarak niteleyebileceğim arşivleme alışkanlığından dolayı bana görev sırasında değişik yerlerden ulaşan belgeleri dosyalayarak muhafaza ettim. Emekli olduktan sonra da bu şekilde gelen belgeleri arşivledim. Beni seven insanlar da bu tür bilgi ve belge akışını bana sağlarlar. Evimde bulunan gizlilik niteliği yüksek olan belgeleri arşivlemem, karakterimin ve alışkanlığımın bir yansımasıdır. Aynı zamanda yazıya dökülen gizli konuşma kayıtları da bunun içinde yer alıyor. Evimde, gündemdeki Ergenekon, Lobi gibi belgelerin orijinal nüshalarının çıkması da arşivleme hastalığımdan kaynaklanmaktadır."
- İnci, Fatih (2008-08-19). "JİTEM'ci Albay'dan uyuşturucu servisi!" (in Turkish). Yeni Şafak. http://yenisafak.com.tr/Gundem/?i=135387. Retrieved 2008-08-19. "Kardeşim ben JİTEM'in kurucusuyum. Bana gramlık uyuşturucunun hesabını soruyorsunuz. Bunları görev icabı ihtayacı olanlara veriyorum. Si....m uyuşturucusunu."
- Karapinar, Turker (2008-08-16). "Emekli Albay Doğan: JİTEM’in uygulacısıydım" (in Turkish). Milliyet. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/Siyaset/HaberDetay.aspx?aType=HaberDetay&Kategori=siyaset&ArticleID=979078&Date=16.08.2008&b=%27J%C4%B0TEM%E2%80%99in%20uygulac%C4%B1s%C4%B1yd%C4%B1m%27. Retrieved 2008-08-19. "Ergenekon’la alakam yoktur. Ergenekon’u soruşturma aşamasında duydum. 21 yıl dağlarda görev yaptım. JİTEM’in de dağlarda uygulayıcısıydım."
- Duvakli, Melik (2008-01-30). "JITEM hitman: Veli Küçük conceals masterminds". Zaman. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=132811. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
- Şardan, Tolga; Karapinar, Turker (2008-08-21). "JİTEM’i ben kurdum, Veli Küçük’e devrettim" (in Turkish). Milliyet. http://www.milliyet.com.tr/Siyaset/HaberDetay.aspx?aType=HaberDetay&ArticleID=980869&Kategori=siyaset&Date=21.08.2008&b=J%DDTEM%92i%20ben%20kurdum,%20Veli%20K%FC%E7%FCk%92e%20devrettim&ver=13. Retrieved 2008-08-21. "1990’da Jandarma İstihbarat Grup Komutanlığı görevimi kendisine devrettim. Bu sırada yarbay olarak görev yapıyordum. Görev alanımız Türkiye geneliydi. Küçük ise albaydı."
- see the daily Hürriyet of 20 November 2005)
- Arif Doğan was detained in August 2008 (see Weekly report of the HRFT and released because of illness 11 months later (see the daily Zaman of 30 July 2009)
- The article appeared in Haber Türk on 26 September 2010; accessed on 27 September 2010
- See the article in Haber Vitrin of 9 February 2009; accessed on 27 September 2010
- Serhan Yedig, "Bir var bir yok! Hem var hem yok JİTEM" Hürriyet, 21 November 2005.
- Tokat Paşa: Suçlular cezalandırılsın, ordu yıpratılmasın, Zaman, 29 December 2004.
- KILIÇ, Ecevit (2009-01-26). "5 bin kişiyi öldüren JİTEM dağıtılmadı" (in Turkish). Sabah. http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/2009/01/26/haber,5513A29C7AE244A585461D159D448608.html. Retrieved 2010-05-23. "JİTEM dağıtılmadı. Sadece kadroları aktif değil. Eleman ağı aynen duruyor."
- For Article 5 of Law on the Establishment, Duties and Jurisdiction of Gendarmerie No. 2803, see Resmi Gazete (Official Gazette) No. 17985, dated 12 March 1983. "The Organisation of the General Command of Gendarmerie is stated in its own establishment and staff decrees in accordance with the nature of its duties and the principles of the Turkish Armed Forces. The Gendarmerie General Command’s establishment, staff and duty stations are regulated by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in consultation with the General Staff. During times of mobilization and war, squads under the command of military departments are organised with the approval of the General Staff. The organisation and mobilising of gendarmerie squads that are charged with security and public order duties are based on civilian divisions except in inevitable situations. To provide productivity and efficiency of service, organisations that cover more than one province are also considered."
- For the Law Concerning Amendments to Some Laws No. 5397 see Resmi Gazete (Official Gazette) dated 23 July 2005 No. 25884.
- Cicek, Nevzat (2008-12-17). "JİTEM tabelası bile vardı" (in Turkish). Taraf. http://www.taraf.com.tr/haber.asp?id=23635. Retrieved 2009-01-04. "Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı-İstihbarat Başkanlığı-Gruplar Komutanlığı-Grup Komutanlıkları (Bunlar yedi ayrı bölgede konumlanmıştır)-Tim Komutanlıkları-Birimler."
- Kuseyri, Murat (2008-10-03). "Savcılara hatırlatma" (in Turkish). Günlük Evrensel Gazetesi. http://www.evrensel.net/haber.php?haber_id=38203. Retrieved 2008-11-05.
- Şık, Ahmet (2009-03-24). "Fırat’ın ötesi: ÖHD, ÖKK, JİTEM, Ergenekon…" (in Turkish). Habervesaire. http://www.habervesaire.com/haber/1339/. Retrieved 2010-05-22. "JİTEM’in örgütsel yapısını tam olarak bilmek mümkün değil. Ama jandarma içinde merkezi Ankara’da, çoğunluğu Güneydoğu’da olmak üzere belli bölgeler de grup komutanlıkları şeklinde örgütlendiği, illerde jandarma alay komutanlıklarının bünyesinde, emirleri doğrudan Ankara’daki merkezden alan, istihbarat, sorgu ve operasyon şeklinde üçlü faaliyet gösteren bir yapı olduğu anlaşılıyor."
- Şık, Ahmet (2009-03-24). "Fırat’ın ötesi: ÖHD, ÖKK, JİTEM, Ergenekon…" (in Turkish). Habervesaire. http://www.habervesaire.com/haber/1339/. Retrieved 2010-05-22. "JİTEM sözüm ona PKK’ya karşı ‘gayri nizami harp’ faaliyetleri yürütmek üzere kuruldu, ama hiçbir zaman doğrudan PKK’nın kırsaldaki silahlı gruplarıyla karşı karşıya gelmedi."
- Şık, Ahmet (2009-03-24). "Fırat’ın ötesi: ÖHD, ÖKK, JİTEM, Ergenekon…" (in Turkish). Habervesaire. http://www.habervesaire.com/haber/1339/. Retrieved 2010-05-22. "Örgüt bölgede muhbirlerden yararlanarak PKK yanlısı kişilerin öldürülmesi, gerilla kılığıyla köylere baskın düzenlenmesi, kişilerin gözaltına alınarak işkenceden geçirilmesi veya kaybedilmesi gibi eylemler gerçekleştirdi."
- Duvakli, Melik (2009-01-03). "JİTEM behind Anter and Aydın murders, claims Kurdish group". Today's Zaman. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=163093. Retrieved 2009-01-03. "He alleged that jailed PKK leader Abdullah Öcalan told the DTP through his lawyers not to become involved in discussions about Ergenekon."
- Kilic, Ecevit (2008-11-27). "Anter cinayetinde sadece JİTEM değil PKK da var" (in Turkish). Sabah. http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/2008/10/27/haber,875803E7D72F492BB243AE76F5830EDF.html. Retrieved 2009-01-04. "Birbirlerine karşıt olduklarına bakmayın, perdenin arkasında sarmaş dolaşlar."
- The names given in various publications are: Musa Anter, Vedat Aydın, Musa Toprak, Mehmet Şen, Talat Akyıldız, Zahit Turan, Necati Aydın, Ramazan Keskin, Mehmet Ay, Murat Aslan, İdris Yıldırım, Servet Aslan, Sıddık Yetmez, Edip Aksoy, Ahmet Ceylan, Şahabettin Latifeci, Abdülkadir Çelikbilek, Mehmet Salih Dönen, İhsan Haran, Fethi Yıldırım, Abdülkerim Zoğurlu, Zana Zoğurlu, Melle İzzettin, Hakkı Kaya, Harbi Arman, Fikri Özgen, and Muhsin Göl. Of these, Murat Aslan's remains were found in the place described by Aygan, and a forensic dental and ballistic tests confirmed the identity of the victim. Further details can be found in the 2005 annual report of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey.
- Sik, Ahmet (2005-02-03). "Acı bir Susurluk öyküsü" (in Turkish). Radikal. http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=142287. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
- Ekinci, Burhan (2005-02-02). "İşte İtiraf, İşte Ceset! Sorumlular Nerede?" (in Turkish). Bianet. http://wwww.bianet.org/bianet/kategori/insanhaklari/53545/iste-itiraf-iste-ceset-sorumlular-nerede. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
- "‘A piece of bone could shed light on Silopi executions’". Today's Zaman. 2008-12-18. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=161589. Retrieved 2008-12-21.
- Oktay, Mehmet (2008-12-20). "Family believes four members were executed with acid". Today's Zaman. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=161800. Retrieved 2008-12-22.
- "Kaçak Paşa'nın korku imparatorluğu" (in Turkish). Bugun (Koza İpek Gazetecilik ve Yayıncılık A.Ş.). 2008-12-17. http://www.bugun.com.tr/haber_detay.asp?haberID=48497. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
- Mehtap, Söyler (21 September 2009). "Der demokratische Reformprozess in der Türkei" (in German). Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte (Berlin) 39. http://www.bundestag.de/dasparlament/2009/39-40/Beilage/001.html. Retrieved 24 May 2009. "Der türkische Menschenrechtsverein IHD schätzt, dass der JITEM zwischen 1989 und 2008 an etwa 5000 unaufgeklärten Morden an Journalisten, Menschenrechtlern, Intellektuellen und politischen Aktivisten beteiligt war und für das Verschwinden von etwa 1500 Personen verantwortlich ist."
- KILIÇ, Ecevit (2009-01-26). "5 bin kişiyi öldüren JİTEM dağıtılmadı" (in Turkish). Sabah. http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/2009/01/26/haber,5513A29C7AE244A585461D159D448608.html. Retrieved 2010-05-23. "İbrahim Babat adlı itirafçı 61 kişiyi öldürmekle yargılandı. * Faili meçhul sayısı kaç? Bu konuda net bir rakam söylemek mümkün değil. JİTEM'in öldürdüğü veya öldürdükten sonra kaybettiği kaç kişi var? 4 binden fazla, 5 bin civarında."
- Tuna, Banu (2005-03-20). "4653 faili meçhul belgeseli" (in Turkish). Hürriyet. http://webarsiv.hurriyet.com.tr/2005/03/20/616517.asp. Retrieved 2010-05-24. "4653 rakamına nasıl ulaştınız? - Avrupa İnsan Hakları Mahkemesi’ne giden davalara baktık. Bölge barolarının yaptıkları çalışmaları inceledik. İnsan Hakları Derneği’nin merkez ve Diyarbakır şubelerinin çalışmalarına baktık. Yakınlarını Kaybedenler Derneği’nin istatistiklerinden de yola çıkarak bu rakama ulaştık."
- "JİTEM Öldürdü" (in Turkish). ülkede özgür gündem (Bianet). 2004-03-15. http://www.bianet.org/bianet/kategori/bianet/31067/jitem-oldurdu. Retrieved 2009-01-03.
- Duvakli, Melik (2009-03-02). "Wife of slain Kurdish politician says husband killed by JİTEM". Today's Zaman. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=203078. Retrieved 2010-05-24. "Şükran Aydın: a clandestine unit within the gendarmerie is responsible for the murder."
- "Vedat Aydın cinayeti raftan indi" (in Turkish). Taraf. 2009-05-06. http://www.taraf.com.tr/haber/vedat-aydin-cinayeti-raftan-indi.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-24. "Diyarbakır Özel yetkili Cumhuriyet Başsavcılığı, aralarında Diyarbakır JİTEM eski Grup Komutanı Binbaşı Aytekin Özen’in de bulunduğu altısı itirafçı dokuz JİTEM elemanı hakkında yakalama emri çıkardı."
- Duvakli, Melik, JİTEM’s illegal actions cost Turkey a fortune, Today's Zaman, 27 August 2008.
- Ergenekon indictment reopens gendarmerie major’s murder case, Today's Zaman, 13 August 2008.
- "Bir astsubayın kaleminde JİTEM gerçeği" (in Turkish). ANF. 2008-08-29. http://www.firatnews.com/index.php?rupel=arsiv&anf=nuce2&nuceID=2051. Retrieved 2010-05-25. "1990’lı yıllarda Kürtlerin korkulu rüyası haline gelen JİTEM ekipleri infazların yanısıra makam araçlarıyla uyuşturucu ticareti, silah kaçakçılığı da yaptığına ilişkin bir astsubayın anlattıkları mahkemeye delil olarak sunuldu."
- Şık, Ahmet (2009-03-24). "Fırat’ın ötesi: ÖHD, ÖKK, JİTEM, Ergenekon…" (in Turkish). Habervesaire. http://www.habervesaire.com/haber/1339/. Retrieved 2010-05-22. "1997 yılında müdahil olduğum ve JİTEM görevlilerinin suçlandığı bir davada İdil Savcısı İlhan Cihaner’in fezlekesinde bunu adı konmuştur. Savcının ciddi saptamaları vardır. Savcı fezlekesinde kamu görevlileri, itirafçılar ve başka bazı kişilerin de içinde olduğu ve adam öldürme, bombalama, gözaltında kaybetme gibi suçları işleyen ülke genelinde örgütlü bir suç örgütü var diyor. Bu fezlekenin sanıklarının 1. sırasında yer alan isim Ahmet Cem Ersever’dir ki JİTEM’in kurucusu olduğunu herkes biliyor. Sonra 2. sıradaki sanık, şimdi Ergenekon soruşturmasının tutukluları arasında yer alan ve yine JİTEM’in kurucularından olan Arif Doğan’dır."
- Detailed background can be found in http://www.gundem-online.net/haber.asp?haberid=96101 gündemonline of 3 September 2010; accessed on 27 September 2010
- Compare the daily Zaman of 12 May 2010, quoted in the daily reports of the Democratic Turkey Forum; accessed on 27 September 2010
- Jugdments of the ECtHR can be found at http://www.echr.coe.int/ECHR/EN/hudoc. You can search by the Application no. 25657/94 or CASE OF AVŞAR v. TURKEY
- "PKK itirafçısı Toka'ya tahliye" (in Turkish). Radikal. 2006-01-20. http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=176217&tarih=20/01/2006. Retrieved 2008-07-25. "Kutlu Savaş'ın Susurluk Raporu'nda adı geçen ve JİTEM adına çok sayıda faili meçhul cinayete karıştığı öne sürülen PKK itirafçısı Hayrettin Toka, 10 yıl sonra Karamürsel'de yakalandı. Diyarbakır'a getirilen Hayrettin Toka, ifade verdikten sonra serbest bırakıldı."
- See the article in the daily Hürriyet of 11 September 2009; accessed on 27 September 2010
- Details on hearings in this case can be found in the daily reports of the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, backed up by the Democratic Turkey Forum; the relevant dates are: 03-05.04.2010, 08-10.05.2010, 05-07.06.2010, 15.06.2010, 10-12.07.2010 and 07-09.08.2010
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Özel tim-Özel Harekat Timi (Special Team)
- Ersever, Ahmet Cem (2007) (in Turkish). Kürtler, PKK ve Abdullah Öcalan. Istanbul: Milenyum Yayınları. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/975-8773-25-1|975-8773-25-1]].
[edit | edit source]
Two series of articles in pro-Kurdish newspapers:
- JİTEMciler konuşuyor: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Template:Tr [Dead links]
- JİTEM'i deşifre ediyoruz: 1, 2, 3, 4. Template:Tr[Dead links]