This is a list of Pakistani intelligence agencies. Pakistan has a number of intelligence agencies of which the best known are the Inter-Services Intelligence & Federal Investigation Agency (FIA).
- 1 Federal Investigation Agency
- 2 Inter-Services Intelligence
- 3 Defence Intelligences of Pakistan
- 4 Intelligence Bureau
- 5 References
Federal Investigation Agency[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Federal Investigation Agency
Federal Investigation Agency (FIA), the chief investigative agency of Federal Government and a department of Federal Interior Ministry. The FIA is charged with the investigation of violations of most Federal Criminal Laws from foreign intelligence and terrorist activities. It also provides services to other law enforcement agencies, including Fingerprint Identification, Laboratory Analysis of criminal evidence, Police training, and access to a Centralized Crime information database. Because of its broad mandate, the FIA is one of the most multidimensional and significant agency in the Government. The Agency traces its origins to 1974, when the Prime Minister Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto conceived and created a new Law Enforcement Agency on the pattern of American (FBI) Federal Bureau of Investigation. The old name of FIA was “Special Police Establishment” that traces its origin since 1947. The present name and formation came into being in 1974.
Structure[edit | edit source]
Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) has its Headquarter in Islamabad. The Chief Presiding Officer of the Agency is called the Director General, same is appointed by Ministry of Interior. The Headquarter provide support to 4 Provincial offices, i-e Sindh, Punjab, KPK, Balochistan & Federal Capital Islamabad. The Provincial heads of Agency are called Directors. Further there are about (?) smaller offices known as Wings or Circles e.g. Crime, Corporate Crime, Banking Crime and Anti-Human Trafficking Circles at provincial level, they are headed by Additional and Deputy Directors, these are helped by Investigation officers(I.O) like Assistant Directors, Inspectors, Sub-Inspectors and Assistant Sub-Inspectors etc. for running of bureau business. The Wings are major segments of Agency known as Anti-Corruption or Crime Wing, Immigration Wing, Technical Wing, Legal Wing and Administration Wing. Further there are branches working under the command of above-mentioned Wings viz Counter terrorism branch (SIG), Interpol branch, Legal branch, Crime branch, Economic crime branch, Intellectual Property Rights branch, Immigration branch, Anti-Human Smuggling branch, PISCES branch, Administration branch, Implementation and monitoring branch.
The FIA has its headquarters in Islamabad. The agency is led by the FIA Director General, who reports to the Interior Ministry of Pakistan. The Director General is nominated by Interior Ministry and confirmed by the Federal Government. The Director General may serve a term of three years or until the Government may require to serve.
The FIA has (?) field offices located in major cities. The FIA has about 3600 employees. Nearly 200 are special agents or members from crime & SIG groups, who have the authority to make arrests and use firearms. The rest are professional support personnel, a category that includes chemists, psychologists, language specialists, computer specialists, attorneys, clerical workers and many other types of employees. The FIA’s annual budget is approximately Rs. ???? and is appropriated by the Federal Government of Pakistan.
FIA headquarters comprises the following segments down to provinces: the Administrative Services Division, the Counterintelligence Division, the Counterterrorism Division, the Criminal Investigative Division, the Cyber crime Division, the Finance Division, the Information Resources Division, the Investigative Technologies Division, the Laboratory Division, the Records Management Division, the Security Division, and the Training Division. A Deputy Director heads each division and executive assistant directors supervise groups of divisions. The headquarters also includes a number of offices, including the Office of Public Affairs, the Office of Professional Responsibility, the Office of the General Counsel, and the Office of Equal Employment Opportunity.
Jurisdiction and Investigative Responsibilities[edit | edit source]
Raids by the FIA Members are conducted with empty hands as they have no weapon to use for their protection in Crime Circles. Only the SIG branch keeps weapon.
The FIA has the broadest jurisdiction (investigative authority) of all Federal Law Enforcement Agencies. It is authorized to investigate all Federal criminal violations that the Parliament of Pakistan has not specifically assigned to other Federal Agencies. It may investigate other matters at the orders of the President, Prime Minister, Attorney General and Provinces of Pakistan or if authorized under a law passed by Parliament. This mandate stands in contrast to other Federal law enforcement agencies, which have other missions to do.
The FIA investigates hundreds of different Federal crimes, including organized crime, spurious drug trafficking, espionage, terrorism, bank robbery, extortion and kidnapping etc. The agency is responsible for investigating Federal civil rights violations, such as police brutality and racial violence (if assigned). The FIA also investigates so-called white-collar crimes, such as money laundering, bank fraud, embezzlement and corruption of all Federal Government departments (excluded Armed Forces) election-law violations, environmental crimes, and computer-related crimes (some of them if assigned). Additionally, it handles cases involving threats or actual violence against the President, Prime Minister and members of Parliament & Senate (if assigned). In all cases, the FIA presents the results of its investigations to Federal Government through Interior Ministry who decide whether to prosecute suspects in the law courts.
In conducting investigations, the FIA frequently works with Local, Provincial, Federal and international law enforcement organizations. For example, the FIA works with the Local Police, Interpol and with other Military intelligence agencies to prevent foreign spies from obtaining Pakistan National Security secrets. Enquiring into criminal activities, the FIA can cross provincial and country borders. It investigates interstate criminal activity and can arrest fugitives who cross state lines to avoid prosecution. Although the FIA is not usually authorized to make arrests in foreign countries but the agency works with law enforcement agencies abroad to apprehend suspects wanted in crimes. The FIA also conducts non-criminal inquiries. It researches the backgrounds of Pakistan Supreme Court nominees, Cabinet nominees, and other presidential appointees to help the federal Government so that these candidates be confirmed (if assigned). It also conducts background checks on people who apply for employment in the FIA, Justice Department, President House, Nuclear Commission and certain other government departments (if assigned). Finally, the FIA may collect evidence in civil suits involving Federal Government.
Among functions of FIA specifically are investigations of counterfeiting and violations of Federal laws. Intelligence activities aimed at foreign countries, related to the National Security of Pakistan are generally carried out by the ISI. However, the FIA does investigate terrorism outside of Pakistan when directed against Pakistan citizens or interests & embassies.
Members[edit | edit source]
Trainees at the FIA Academy (Members-in-training) Islamabad. New recruits at the academy undergo several weeks of professional training required by FIA special members.
FIA members are responsible for conducting investigations. They perform their duties mainly from the field offices located around the country; they are guided by supervisors in the field offices and at headquarters. Members are responsible for gathering information and evidence about possible criminal activity that may be used by federal prosecutors in courts.
To carry out their duties, FIA members are entrusted with some special powers. They can place suspects under arrest with permission of the courts, they can eavesdrop on private phone conversations, videotape what goes on in people’s homes, open mailboxes and read mail and obtain telephone bills, income tax returns and other confidential documents. They can also subpoena witnesses to testify before a jury. While pursuing suspects, they are authorized to break traffic laws by showing their credentials. If necessary, they can request to get help from the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), and foreign governments. But unless members are on bureau business and have proper authorization, they have no more power than any other citizens.
People seeking employment as FIA members must be Pakistani citizens at least 21 years old but no older than 28. Applicants must have a degree from a college or university for officer rank. The agency prefers those with law or other professional degrees because they can more easily understand federal criminal laws and financial crimes, respectively. It also admits applicants with expertise in languages and those with a bachelor’s degree and at least three years of relevant work experience. Applicants must also be in excellent in physical condition. New members undergo several weeks of intensive training at the FIA Academy & other Police training centers etc., where they learn about federal laws, crime investigation, firearms use, defensive tactics, and other subjects.
Law enforcement services[edit | edit source]
As the sophisticated law enforcement agency in Pakistan, the FIA plays a central and indispensable role in assisting local, provincial, federal, and international law enforcement agencies. This assistance includes fingerprint identification, laboratory analysis of criminal evidence, criminal profiling, police training and maintenance of a central crime information database and publication of crime statistics.
Fingerprint identification[edit | edit source]
Fingerprint Analysis storing fingerprint records in computers have made it much easier for the FIA to identify latent fingerprints—fingerprints left at the scene of a crime.
Every person has a unique set of fingerprints, a fact that allows police officers to identify suspected criminals from fingerprints found at a crime scene. The FIA serves as the central expert for fingerprint identification in Pakistan. Types of Human fingerprint patterns fall into three main groups: whorls, loops, and arches. Loops are the most common type, accounting for about 65 percent of all fingerprints. Whorls account for 30 percent of fingerprints, and arches for 5 percent. Despite these broad patterns, each individual has a unique set of fingerprints, which can be used as a means of personal identification.
Police training[edit | edit source]
The FIA Academy founded in 1975 and located in Islamabad. The Academy, offers advanced trainings to selected and executive-level officers from FIA, Provincial Police, Armed Forces & various other departments of the government. All courses cover leadership and management skills, law, communications, forensic science, health and fitness. At FIA academy the officer from across the country are offered with hundreds of specialized courses on hostage negotiation, fingerprints, criminal psychology, computer crime, law and other topics.
The FIA publishes FIA monthly Newsletter for information. The monthly magazine founded in 19??, features information on the latest issues in law enforcement operations and administration achievements of officers are also highlighted to appreciate their hard work.
Under Bhutto government[edit | edit source]
Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was the founder of the FIA. He conceived the view that the Federal Government of the United States of America having a good law enforcement agency FBI which not only protects the country from internal crises but also from foreign suspected threats therefore he established the FIA on the same pattern. The FIA was empowered most during Bhutto government. FIA officers could also investigate issues, affairs and corruption of Politicians, Civil and Armed Forces officers. But during the government of General Zia-ul-Haq the FIA was used into political issues to subdue political rivals. This resulted in collateral damage of the Agency. Since the time of General Zia-ul-Haq the very powers of the agency have been curtailed. Therefore corruption at the federal level increased too much. The actual concept of agency was fade. Whereas FBI is being delegated with more powers keeping the changing scenario of the world in view. Some officers and political personalities tired to lift up the FIA, keeping perspectives of the FBI but political hindrances, insufficiency of funds & shortage of required equipments made it impossible to stand with FBI of United States.
September 11 attacks[edit | edit source]
Just after, September 11, 2001, the attacks in the United States history, which completely destroyed the World Trade Center Buildings and severely damaged the Pentagon, the U.S. military headquarters outside of Washington, D.C. More than 3,000 people died in the attacks. The FBI launched the largest investigation in its history and soon determined that the hijackers were linked to al-Qaeda, led by Saudi exiled Osama bin Laden. Later that year, the agency investigated the mailing of several letters containing potentially lethal anthrax bacteria to media companies and political offices, but it was unable to identify any suspects.
Same as just after September, 11 attacks the FIA also came into strict vigilance and launched huge operation in its history against suspected subjects. With the assistance of United States government the FIA Immigration wing was equipped with the most modern computer software technology (PISCES) system. Through this high-tech computer devises, it is nearly impossible for delinquents to cross the boarders illegally. FIA Immigration wing has also successfully decreased the ratio of illegal immigration which regarded it with appreciations from all the Nations of World.
Drawbacks[edit | edit source]
There is no general awareness in common people about the FIA some people frequently ask this question “Is there any department made to control corruption of federal departments?” because the FIA did not advertise about its very existence for general awareness of common people, resulting the common people have no idea about the FIA to redress their grievances against any federal department. Only educated people have knowledge about the FIA. There is also a solid reason about general ignorance of the common people that field offices of the FIA are situated in only major cities of the country so the people from remote areas have no or little approach to the Agency, in this concern the circles or the field offices may be extended to the district level for an easy approach of the common man. The FIA should also be equipped with latest technology according to needs and necessities of present time. Funds, equipments and training of the FIA members must be revamped. A great care should be given in selection of officers of the Agency because FIA has to perform sophisticated and technical type of task like FBI of United States of America. Ordinary police officer cannot handle the technical and complex type of matters e.g. enquiries & investigations regarding Banks, Corporations and immigration etc.
Salaries Benefits and FIA employees draw very poor salaries and other benefits for them that’s why corruption cannot be controlled in Pakistan.
Inter-Services Intelligence[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Inter-Services Intelligence
The Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (more commonly known as Inter-Services Intelligence or simply by its initials ISI) is Pakistan's premier intelligence agency. It is the largest of the three intelligence agencies of Pakistan.
ISI was established as an independent intelligence agency in 1948 in order to strengthen the sharing of military intelligence between the three branches of Pakistan's armed forces in the aftermath of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, which had exposed weaknesses in intelligence gathering, sharing and coordination between the Pakistan Army, Air Force and Navy.
Defence Intelligences of Pakistan[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Military Intelligence of Pakistan
In Pakistan Defence Forces, the Military Intelligence (also known as M.I.), is a Pakistan Defence Forces intelligence agency and that is responsible for the military intelligence services in Pakistan. It is also refers specifically to the intelligence components of the Pakistan Armed Forces. The MI directorate is composed of Air Intelligence (AI) of Air Force, Naval Intelligence (Navy), Army Intelligence (Pakistan Army), and the Directorate for Marine Intelligence of the Marines. However, the M.I. is part of the Army and reports directly to the Chief of Army Staff. And, the Army has been appointed its officers to lead the agency. Pakistan's Military Intelligence (MI) is one of the three main intelligence services in Pakistan. MI is tasked with operations, identifying and eliminating sleeper cells, foreign agents and other anti-Pakistani elements within Pakistan. and proved its strength and power throughout by capturing all the culprits intelligently  The M.I. is currently headed by Army's two-star general, Major-General Naushad Ahmed Kayani.
Intelligence Bureau[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan)
Intelligence Bureau (IB) is Pakistan's main domestic/internal intelligence and espionage agency. It functions under direct control of Chief Executive of Pakistan - either Prime Minister or the President. The IB's tasks include counter-intelligence and internal Security matters.