Template:Infobox Government agency Military Intelligence (Template:Lang-ar, Shu'bat al-Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya) is an intelligence service of Syria.[1] It was established in 1969;[2] its predecessor was called Deuxième Bureau.[2] It is headquartered at the Defense Ministry headquarters in Damascus.[3]

The Mukhabarat is very influential in Syrian politics, and is controlled by the President.[4][5] It is suspected of providing support to different radical groups.[6] Additionally, the service monitors dissidents of the regime outside Syria.[7] During the Syrian occupation of Lebanon, the Mukhabarat exercised political authority in Lebanon.

General Assef Shawqat, the brother-in-law of Bashar Al-Assad, became director in 2005 replacing General Hassan Khalil.[8] In 2011, military intelligence was headed by Abdel-Fatah Qudsiyeh who is from the Alawite sect.[9][10] In May 2011, Gen Qudsiya was included in a list of Syrian officials subjected to EU sanctions for their roles in violence against protesters. Military Intelligence is said to have played a prominent role in the crackdown, firing on crowds of protesters and killing a large number of civilians. The US also imposed sanctions on Gen Qudsiya later that month, accusing his agency of using force against and arresting demonstrators participating in the unrest. He's a part Bashar al-Assad's inner circle.[11]

Heads of Military Intelligence[edit | edit source]

  • Deputy director: Hassan Khalil (1993 - 2000)[14]
  • Hassan Khalil (2000 - 2005)[13]
  • Deputy director: Assef Shawkat (2000 - 2005)[14][15]
  • Deputy director: Saeed Sammour (2005 - )[17]
  • Abdel-Fatah Qudsiyeh (2009 - July 2012), the European Union sanctioned him for being involved in violence against the civilian population during the Syrian uprising.[10][18][19]
    • Head of Internal Affairs (branch 293): Rafiq Shahadah (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Damascus during the Syrian uprising. Advisor to President Bashar Al-Assad for strategic questions and military intelligence.[19]
  • Rafiq Shahadah (July 2012 - present)[11]

Regional Heads of Military Intelligence[edit | edit source]

  • Damascus (branch 215): Brig. Gen. Sha’afiq (2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[20]
  • Damascus (branch 235): Brig. Gen. Muhammad Khallouf (2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[20]
  • Damascus (branch 291): Brig. Gen. Yousef Abdou (2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[20]
  • Damascus (branch 291): Brig. Gen. Burhan Qadour (past-2012) accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[20]
  • Hama city branch: Mohammad Mufleh (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being involved in the crackdown on demonstrators during the Syrian uprising.[19]
  • Deir ez-Zor branch: Jami Jami (2011), the European union sanctioned him for being directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Dayr az-Zor and Alboukamal during the Syrian uprising.[19]
  • Idlib (branch 291): Brig. Gen. Nawful Al-Husayn (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Idlib province during the Syrian uprsing.[19] Accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[20]
  • Homs branch: Muhammed Zamrini (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being directly involved in repression and violence against the civilian population in Homs during the Syrian uprising.[19] Accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[20]
  • Daraa (branch 245): Col. Lu’ai al-Ali (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being responsible for the violence against protesters in Daraa during the Syrian uprising.[19] Accused of ordering or committing crimes against humanity.[20]
  • Suwayda branch: Wafiq Nasser (2011), head of regional branch assumed position after Brig. Gen. Suheir Ramadan.[21]

Other Syrian intelligence agencies[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. [1][dead link]
  2. 2.0 2.1 Conflict Studies Journal at the University of New Brunswick. Lib.unb.ca. Retrieved on 2010-10-19.
  3. [2][dead link]
  4. Robert G. Rabil Syria, the United States, and the war on terror in the Middle East, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-275-99015-X p.214
  5. TFJD990-01-210480.tex. (PDF). Retrieved on 2010-10-19.
  6. Syria, Intelligence and Security. Espionageinfo.com. Retrieved on 2010-10-19.
  7. Paul Todd, Jonathan Bloch Global intelligence: the world's secret services today, Zed Books, 2003 ISBN 1-84277-113-2 p. 167
  8. Print - ESISC : European Strategic Intelligence & Security Center. ESISC (2005-10-22). Retrieved on 2010-10-19.
  9. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67823/ahed-al-hendi/the-structure-of-syrias-repression?page=show
  10. 10.0 10.1 Black, Ian (2011-04-28). "Six Syrians who helped Bashar al-Assad keep iron grip after father's death". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/28/syria-bashar-assad-regime-members. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Bashar al-Assad's inner circle". BBC News. 2011-05-18. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13216195. 
  12. Moubayed, Sami (2005). Steel & silk : men and women who shaped Syria 1900-2000. Seattle, Wash: Cune. pp. 83. ISBN 1885942400. http://books.google.com/books?id=sC-xU8QHSooC&pg=PA83&lpg=PA83&dq=Hikmat+al-Shihabi&source=bl&ots=bgG1yOKxmj&sig=3d4HbJtoSlH4icZ-Rh51GcmKO_o&hl=en&sa=X&ei=mKAsUOXMNcjRyQGuvYHADw&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Hikmat%20al-Shihabi&f=false. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Bar, Shmuel (2006). "Bashar's Syria: The Regime and its Strategic Worldview". Comparative Strategy 25: 424. http://www.herzliyaconference.org/_Uploads/2590Bashars.pdf. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 MEIB (July 2000). "Syria's Intelligence Services: A Primer". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin 2 (6). http://www.meforum.org/meib/articles/0007_s3.htm. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  15. Gambil, Gary (Feb. 2002). "The Military-Intelligence Shakeup in Syria". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin 4 (2). http://www.meforum.org/meib/articles/0202_s1.htm. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  16. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2009/07/20/the_list_the_middle_easts_most_powerful_spies?page=0,3
  17. Bar, Shmuel (2006). "Bashar's Syria: The Regime and its Strategic Worldview". Comparative Strategy 25: 390. http://www.herzliyaconference.org/_Uploads/2590Bashars.pdf. Retrieved 15 May 2011. 
  18. Rainer, Hermann (26 April 2011). "Geheimdienste in Syrien: Teile, herrsche, morde". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. http://www.faz.net/artikel/C32315/geheimdienste-in-syrien-teile-herrsche-morde-30335230.html. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 "Joint Proposal for a COUNCIL REGULATION concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Syria and repealing Regulation (EU) No 442/2011". EuroLex 52011PC0887. 2011. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2011:0887:FIN:EN:HTML. Retrieved 10 March 2012. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 "Torture Archipelago". Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/node/108415/section/2. Retrieved 3 July 2012. 
  21. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/syria1211webwcover_0.pdf

External links[edit | edit source]

Template:Syrian security forces

ar:شعبة الاستخبارات العسكرية de:Abteilung für Militärische Aufklärung fr:Shu'bat al-Mukhabarat al-'Askariyya he:המודיעין הצבאי הסורי lt:Karinė žvalgyba (Sirija) ru:Военная разведка Сирии

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