Template:Infobox Government agency

Political Security Directorate (Template:Lang-ar, Idarat al-Amn al-Siyasi) is an intelligence service of Syria. [1] It is active against the opposition. [2] It runs detention centres (2005).[3] It is divided into an Internal Security Department and an External Security Department. [4] It monitors political dissent[5] and registered parties are surveilled, too.[6] It monitors all media. [7]

From 1987 until the 1990s, it was headed by Adnan Badr Hassan[8] an Alawite from Homs. [9] Ghazi Kanaan was its chief from 2002 to 2004. [10]In 2004, Muhammad Manasra became its head. [11] In 2011, its chief was Deeb Zaitoun a Sunni.[12]

Heads of Political Security Directorate[edit | edit source]

  • Head of Investigative branch: Brig. Gen. Makhmoud al-Khattib (2011).[22]
  • Head of Operations branch: Brig. Gen. Mohamed Heikmat Ibrahim (2011).[23]

Regional Heads of Political Security Directorate[edit | edit source]

  • Daraa branch: Atef Najib (2011), the European Union sanctioned him for being responsible for the violence against protesters in Daraa during the Syrian uprising.[24] He was replaced by Brig. Gen. Nasser Al-Ali.[25]

Other Syrian intelligence agencies[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. http://www.meib.org/articles/0007_s3.htm
  2. http://www.espionageinfo.com/Sp-Te/Syria-Intelligence-and-Security.html
  3. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2007/feb/19/20070219-102043-1711r/
  4. http://www.herzliyaconference.org/_Uploads/2590Bashars.pdf
  5. http://www.herzliyaconference.org/_Uploads/2590Bashars.pdf
  6. http://books.google.de/books?id=_95QPEm3RcEC&pg=PA167&lpg=PA167&dq=%22Political+Security+Directorate%22&source=web&ots=fN3XCvpFXC&sig=gWiaQVs3hu9Fs2HPMdHdeJ3q-p4&hl=fr&ei=1q-aSaOmJ4mQ0AWIq93AAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result
  7. http://books.google.fr/books?id=_95QPEm3RcEC&pg=PA167&dq=%22Political+Security+Directorate%22&lr=&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES&hl=de
  8. http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/bin/get.cgi?directory=J97/articles/&filename=RATHMELLwp1.htm
  9. http://www.minbuza.nl/nl/actueel/ambtsberichten,2003/05/syrie_x_05_04_02.html
  10. http://www.mafhoum.com/press9/252P52.htm
  11. http://books.google.fr/books?id=2jvac2R5Z_cC&pg=PA214&dq=%22Political+Security+Directorate%22&lr=&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES&hl=de
  12. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67823/ahed-al-hendi/the-structure-of-syrias-repression?page=show
  13. http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/bin/get.cgi?directory=J97/articles/&filename=RATHMELLwp1.htm
  14. http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/bin/get.cgi?directory=J97/articles/&filename=RATHMELLwp1.htm
  15. http://books.google.com/books?ei=W93tTaKMJ6nViAL06amaBg&ct=result&id=wqZmAAAAMAAJ&dq=Adnan+Badr+Hassan&q=Adnan+Badr+Hasan#search_anchor
  16. http://www.economist.com/node/5016428
  17. http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/syriablog1/2005/06/bahjat-suleiman-moved-along-with-other.htm
  18. http://cablegatesearch.net/cable.php?id=09DAMASCUS168&q=political-security-department%20syria
  19. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67823/ahed-al-hendi/the-structure-of-syrias-repression?page=show
  20. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13216195
  21. http://www.ajc.com/news/nation-world/assad-has-many-generals-1486458.html
  22. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/syria1211webwcover_0.pdf
  23. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/syria1211webwcover_0.pdf
  24. "Joint Proposal for a COUNCIL REGULATION concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Syria and repealing Regulation (EU) No 442/2011". EuroLex 52011PC0887. 2011. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2011:0887:FIN:EN:HTML. Retrieved 10 March 2012. 
  25. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/syria1211webwcover_0.pdf

External links[edit | edit source]

Template:Syrian security forces

de:Direktion für politische Sicherheit fr:Idarat al-Amn al-Siyasi he:מינהל הביטחון הפוליטי הסורי ru:Управление политической безопасности

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