|Israel Security Agency|
Sherut haBitachon haKlali, General Security Service
|Common name||Shin Bet|
|Abbreviation||English: ISA, Local: Shabak - Hebrew: שב״כ, Arabic: شاباك|
|Emblem of the Shabak|
|Motto||מגן ולא יראה|
Magen VeLo Yera'e
|Defender that shall not be seen or The unseen shield|
|Formed||February 8, 1949|
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government agency|
|Governing body||Prime Minister of Israel|
|Agency executive||Yoram Cohen, Director|
Sherut haBitachon haKlali (Template:Lang-he, General Security Service), better known by the acronym Shabak (Template:Lang-he, Template:IPA-he, Template:Lang-ar), in English as the Israel Security Agency (ISA) or the Shin Bet (a two-letter Hebrew abbreviation of the name), is Israel's internal security service. Its motto is "Magen VeLo Yera'e" (Template:Lang-he, lit. "Defender that shall not be seen" or "The unseen shield"). It is one of three principal organizations of the Israeli Intelligence Community, alongside Aman (military intelligence) and the Mossad (foreign intelligence service).
Organization[edit | edit source]
Shabak is believed to have three operational wings:
- The Arab Affairs Department: responsible primarily for Arab related counter-terrorism activities in both Israel and the Palestinian Territories.
- The Non Arab Affairs Department: responsible for non-Arab security issues and cooperation with foreign security agencies, previously concerned with the Communist Bloc.
- The Protective Security Department: responsible for protecting high-value individuals and locations in the country such as government officials, embassies, airports, and research facilities.
Although a security agency, it is not a part of the Israeli Ministry of Defense, and its chief answers directly to the Prime Minister of Israel.
Duties and roles[edit | edit source]
Shabak's duties are safeguarding state security, exposing terrorist rings, interrogating terror suspects, providing intelligence for counter-terrorism operations in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, counter-espionage, personal protection of senior public officials, securing important infrastructure and government buildings, and safeguarding Israeli airlines and overseas embassies.
History[edit | edit source]
With the Israeli declaration of independence in 1948, the Shabak was founded as a branch of the Israel Defense Forces and was initially headed by Isser Harel (the father of Israeli Intelligence, who later headed the Mossad). Responsibility for Shabak activity was later moved from the IDF to the office of the prime minister. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, Shabak's responsibilities included only internal security affairs. Later its responsibilities were extended to counter-espionage and surveillance.
One of the Shabak's leading successes was obtaining a copy of the secret speech made by Nikita Khrushchev in 1956, in which he denounced Stalin. A Polish edition of the speech was provided to the Israeli embassy in Warsaw by the boyfriend of the secretary of a Polish communist official. The Shabak's Polish liaison officer conveyed the copy to Israel. The Israeli government then decided to share the information with the United States, which published it with Israeli approval.
A notable achievement in counter-espionage was the 1961 capture of Israel Beer, who was revealed to be a Soviet spy. Beer was a Lieutenant Colonel in the reserves, a senior security commentator and close friend of Ben-Gurion and reached high Israeli circles. Beer was tried and sentenced to ten years in prison (later extended by the Supreme Court to fifteen years, following his appeal), where he died. That year, Kurt Sita, a Christian German from the Sudetenland and a professor in the Technion, was revealed as a Czechoslovakian spy.
In 1967, an Egyptian-Israeli double agent, Rif'at al Gamal/Jacques Bitton, gave Egypt false information about Israel's battle plans, claiming it would begin with ground operations. The Egyptians thus left their aircraft on open runways, which enabled the Israel Air Force to knock out Egypt's air force within three hours of the outbreak of the Six-Day War.  Operation Yated, as it was later known, is considered one of the most successful deceptions in Israeli intelligence history, on a par with Britain's Operation Mincemeat during World War II.
After the war, monitoring terrorist activity in the West Bank and Gaza Strip become a major part of Shabak's mission. During 1984–1986, Shabak experienced a major crisis following the Kav 300 affair in which two terrorists who hijacked a bus and took hostages were executed without trial by Shabak officers, who later covered up the event and conspired to frame a senior IDF officer. Following the affair, Shabak head Avraham Shalom was forced to resign.
The Landau Commission, set up to investigate Shabak interrogation methods, criticized the organization and established guidelines to regulate what forms of physical pressure could be used on prisoners.
In 1995, the Shin Bet failed to protect the Israeli prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin, who was assassinated by a right-wing Israeli radical Yigal Amir. Shin Bet had discovered Amir's plans, and a Shin Bet agent was sent to monitor Amir, and reported that Amir was not a threat. Following the assassination, the Shabak director, Carmi Gillon, resigned preemptively. Later, the Shamgar Commission pointed to serious flaws in the personal security unit. Another source of embarrassment and criticism was the violent, provocative and inciting behavior of Avishai Raviv, an informer of the Shabak's Jewish Unit during the time leading up to the assassination. Later, Raviv was acquitted of the charges that he encouraged Yigal Amir to kill Yitzhak Rabin.
In 2000, Ayalon was replaced by Avi Dichter, an ex-Sayeret Matkal commando and an experienced Shabak agent, tightened the working relationship with the Israel Defense Forces and Israeli police. Dichter was in charge when the al-Aqsa Intifada erupted. He turned Shabak into a prominent player in the war on terrorism after the collapse of the 2000 Camp David Summit.
In May 2005, Dichter was replaced by Yuval Diskin.
Information gathering and interrogation methods[edit | edit source]
Shabak also extracts information by interrogating suspects, and there is a history of concern over its methods. In 1987, after complaints about excessive use of violence, the Landau Commission drew up guidelines condoning "moderate physical pressure" when necessary, but in 1994, State Comptroller Miriam Ben-Porat found that these regulations were violated and senior GSS commanders did not prevent it. Later, in 1999, the Israeli Supreme Court heard several petitions against Shabak methods, including (1) "forceful and repeated shaking of the suspect's upper torso, in a manner which causes the neck and head to swing rapidly," (2) manacling of the suspect in a painful "Shabach position" for a long period of time, (3) the "frog crouch" consisting of "consecutive, periodical crouches on the tips of one's toes," and other methods. The Court ruled that Shabak did not have the authority, even under the defense of "necessity," to employ such methods.
Shabak claims it now uses only psychological means, although B'Tselem and Amnesty International continue to accuse Shabak of employing physical methods that amount to torture under international conventions.
Shabak has also worked closely with the Israeli Air Force in "targeted killings" of field commanders and senior leaders of Palestinian militant factions of Hamas, the Islamic Jihad, the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, and Fatah. These killings, are usually done by helicopter gunships, where both IAF commanders and Shabak agents sit together in the command center monitoring the operation. Shabak's task is to give intelligence when and where the target will be available for a strike and then reacting to IAF drone feedback and ensuring the men on the site are indeed the correct targets.
Visibility[edit | edit source]
Once considered a commitment to lifelong anonymity and even invisibility in Israeli society, today a Shabak agent who achieves high rank in the service, especially the director, is considered a candidate for membership in the top brass of the Israeli government and business community. This process follows a trend started by ex-generals and colonels of the Israel Defense Forces, the trailblazers including Moshe Dayan, Ariel Sharon, and Yitzhak Rabin. In the Shabak and the foreign intelligence Mossad service, the trend showed up much later (during the mid-1990s), even though Isser Harel (who served as head of both services) and Meir Amit of the Mossad both served as lawmakers.
Ex-Shabak directors today are increasingly visible as candidates for higher office. Yaakov Peri became the chairman of Bank HaMizrahi in 2002, and also became a highly visible guest on television programs. Carmi Gillon serves as Chairman of the Local Council of Mevaseret Zion, a Jerusalem suburb, while Avi Dichter and Ami Ayalon were at one time leading candidates for defense minister (Dichter for the Kadima party formed by prime minister Ariel Sharon, Ayalon on the Labour party ticket). Dichter eventually became Minister of Internal Security in the government led by Ehud Olmert. Ayalon has attracted widespread following as a co-initiator with Palestinian dignitary Sari Nusseibeh of the non-governmental Peoples' Voice initiative to petition the governments in Israel and the Palestinian Authority for a permanent settlement.
In 2007, the service launched its first ever public recruitment drive, unveiling a "slick Web site" and buying on-line ads in Israel and abroad in a campaign aimed at "attract[ing] top-tier computer programmers" to its "cutting-edge" IT division. On March 18, 2008, it was announced that Shabak's official website would also offer a blog, where four of its agents would discuss anonymously how they were recruited, and what sort of work they perform; they would also answer questions sent in by members of the public. The decision to launch the blog was made by the Shin Bet's top brass, including head Yuval Diskin, and is part of an attempt to attract hi-tech workers to the agency's growing IT department. According to Shabak officers, the Web site and blog are aimed also at promoting a more accessible and positive public image for the secret service, long associated with "dark, undercover and even violent activity".
Shin Bet directors[edit | edit source]
- Isser Harel (1948–1952)
- Izi Dorot (1952–1953)
- Amos Manor (1953–1963)
- Yossef Harmelin (1964–1974)
- Avraham Ahituv (1974–1981)
- Avraham Shalom (1981–1986)
- Yossef Harmelin (1986–1988)
- Yaakov Peri (1988–1994)
- Carmi Gillon (1995–1996)
- Ami Ayalon (1996–2000)
- Avi Dichter (2000–2005)
- Yuval Diskin (2005–2011)
- Yoram Cohen (2011–)
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- "The History of the ISA". Shabak. http://www.shabak.gov.il/english/history/pages/history.aspx. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
- BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Profile: Israel's Shin Bet agency
- Our man in Tel Aviv, Haaretz
- Our man in Tel Aviv, Haaretz
- David K. Shipler, "ARAB and JEW – Wounded Spirits in a Promised Land." 1986. ISBN 0-8129-1273-X. pages 89, 90.
- See the chapter on Raviv in the Shamgar report in Hebrew
- # Katz, Samuel. The Hunt for the Engineer. Lyons Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58574-749-1
- Ayalon Can, Barak Cannot
- Urquhart, Conal (November 30, 2003). "Israel's hard men fight for peace". The Observer (London). http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,1096286,00.html. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- A/55/373 of September 11, 2000
- Case HCJ 5100/94. Draft judgement, 1999
- B'tselem: The ISA interrogation regime: routine ill-treatment
- Amnesty International, 2009 report on Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories. 
- "Israel pounds Gaza...", BBC
- BBC: Israel's Shin Bet launches blog
- Jerusalem Post:Shin Bet security agency launches blog[dead link]
[edit | edit source]
- Shin Bet website (English)
- Shin Bet (FAS)
- Knesset said "No" to Shabak
- Yousef, Mosab Hassan (March 3, 2010). Son of Hamas. Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House. p. 288. ISBN 978-1-4143-3307-6. http://search.barnesandnoble.com/Son-of-Hamas/Mosab-Hassan-Yousef/e/9781414333076/?itm=1&USRI=mosab+hassan+yousef+%22son+of+hamas%22.
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