File:JFK's family leaves Capitol after his funeral, 1963.jpg

Robert Kennedy and Jean Kennedy seen following Jacqueline Kennedy as she leaves the United States Capitol with John F. Kennedy, Jr. and Caroline Kennedy, after viewing John F. Kennedy lying in state, 1963.

The state funeral of John F. Kennedy took place in Washington, D.C. during the three days that followed his assassination on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas.[1]

The body of President Kennedy was brought back to Washington and placed on the East Room of the White House for 24 hours.[2][3] On the Sunday after the assassination, his flag-draped coffin was carried on a horse-drawn caisson to the U.S. Capitol to lie in state.[4] Throughout the day and night, hundreds of thousands lined up to view the guarded casket.[5] Representatives from over 90 countries attended the state funeral on Monday, November 25.[6] After the Requiem Mass at St. Matthew's Cathedral, the late president was buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.[7]

Preparations for the state funeral[edit | edit source]

After John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, his body was flown back to Washington,[8] and on arrival, it was taken to Bethesda Naval Hospital for the autopsy.[9][10] At the same time, military authorities started planning his state funeral.[11] Army Major General Philip C. Wehle, the commanding general of the Military District of Washington (MDW) (CG MDW), and the chief of ceremonies and special events at the MDW, retired Army Colonel Paul C. Miller, planned the funeral.[12][13] They headed to the White House and worked with the president's brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver, also director of the Peace Corps, and Ralph Dungan, an aide to the president.[12][14] Because Kennedy had no funeral plan in place, much of the planning rested with the CG MDW.[12]

House Speaker John W. McCormack said that the president's body would be brought back to the White House to lie in the East Room the following day and then taken to the Capitol to lie in state in the rotunda all day Sunday.[15]

The day after the assassination, the new president, Lyndon B. Johnson, issued Presidential Proclamation 3561, declaring Monday to be a national day of mourning,[16][17] and only essential emergency workers to be at their posts.[18][19] He read the proclamation over a nationwide radio and television broadcast at 4:45 p.m. from the Fish Room at the White House.[16][20]

Several elements of the state funeral paid tribute to Kennedy's service in the Navy during World War II.[21] They included a member of the Navy bearing the presidential flag,[21] the Navy Hymn, "Eternal Father, Strong to Save," and the Naval Academy Glee Club performing at the White House.[22]

White House repose[edit | edit source]


President John F. Kennedy lies in repose in the White House East Room.

After the autopsy at Bethesda Naval Hospital, Kennedy's body was prepared for burial by embalmers from Gawler's Funeral Home in Washington, who performed the embalming and cosmetic restoration procedures at Bethesda, as opposed to the funeral home.[23][24][25] The body was then put in a coffin made of 500-year old African mahogany,[23][26] as some of the handles and ornaments on the bronze one that carried the body from Dallas had been damaged en route.[23]

The body of President Kennedy was returned to the White House at nearly 4:30 a.m., Saturday, November 23.[27] The motorcade bearing the remains was met at the White House gate by a Marine honor guard, which escorted it to the North Portico, where it was borne to the East Room.[25] After being placed in the East Room, Jacqueline Kennedy declared that the casket would be kept closed for the duration of the viewing and funeral. However, the views were conflicting as to why she declared the casket to be closed. Religious leaders said that it minimized morbid concentration on the corpse.[28] The White House said that Kennedy was shot in the head and neck and that the head wound was a gaping one.[29] Mrs. Kennedy, still wearing the blood-stained raspberry-colored suit she wore in Dallas, had to that point refused to leave the side of her husband's body since his death.[30] Only after the casket was placed in the East Room, now decorated with black crepe,[31] did she retire to her private quarters.[32] She requested that two Catholic priests remain with the body until the official funeral. A call was made to The Catholic University of America and Msgr. Robert Paul Mohan and Fr. Gilbert Hartke, two prominent Washington, D.C. priests were immediately dispatched for the task.[33]

Kennedy's casket remained in the East Room for 24 hours, as he lay in repose (then, the term "lying in repose" meant private, as opposed to a public lying in state.[34]).[3]

A Mass was said in the East Room at 10:30 a.m. on Saturday, November 23.[35] After that, other family members, friends, and other government officials came at specified times to pay their respects,[36] including former U.S. Presidents Truman and Eisenhower (The other surviving former U.S. president at the time, Herbert Hoover, was too ill to attend and was represented by his sons. Herbert Hoover Jr. attended the funeral, while Allan Hoover went to the services in the rotunda;[37][38] Hoover died 11 months afterward,[39] and too, lay in state.[40][41]).[36]

Kennedy lay where, nearly one hundred years earlier, Lincoln had lain.[42] An honor guard and two priests stood vigil over his remains.[43] The honor guard included troops from the 3rd Infantry and from the Army's Special Forces (Green Berets).[44] The Special Forces troops had been brought hurriedly from Fort Bragg, North Carolina, at the request of Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, who was aware of his brother's particular interest in them.[44]

The catafalque upon which the remains rested was the same one used in 1958 during the funerals of the Unknown Soldiers from the Korean War and World War II at Arlington.[45]

Outside the White House and in Lafayette Park, across the street from the White House, crowds stood in the rain, keeping a vigil and paying quiet respects.[46][47] It rained all day in Washington, befitting the mood of the nation.[48][49]

Lying in state[edit | edit source]

File:JFK casket in Capitol rotunda, 1963.png

President Lyndon B. Johnson placing a wreath before the flag-draped casket of President Kennedy, during funeral services held in the United States Capitol Rotunda, November 24, 1963.

On Sunday afternoon about 300,000 people watched a horse-drawn caisson, which had borne the body of Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Unknown Soldier, carry Kennedy's flag-covered casket down the White House drive, past parallel rows of soldiers bearing the flags of the 50 states of the Union, then along Pennsylvania Avenue to the Capitol Rotunda to lie in state.[50] The only sounds on Pennsylvania Avenue as the cortège made its way to the Capitol were the sounds of the muffled drums and the clacking of horses' hooves, including the riderless horse Black Jack.[51]

The widow, holding her two children, one in each hand, led the public mourning for the country.[52][53] In the rotunda, Mrs. Kennedy and her daughter Caroline knelt beside the casket, which rested on the Lincoln catafalque.[54] Three-year-old John Jr. was briefly taken out of the rotunda so as not to disrupt the service.[53] Mrs. Kennedy maintained her composure as her husband was taken to the Capitol to lie in state, as well as during the memorial service.[53]

Brief eulogies were delivered inside the rotunda by Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield of Montana, Chief Justice Earl Warren, and Speaker McCormack.[55]

Kennedy was the first president in more than 30 years to lie in state in the rotunda, the previous one being the only president to ever serve as chief justice, William Howard Taft, in 1930.[56] He was also the first Democrat to lie in state at the Capitol.[57]

Public viewing[edit | edit source]

In the only public viewing, hundreds of thousands lined up in near-freezing temperatures to view the casket.[58] Over the span of 18 hours, 250,000 people, some waiting for as long as 10 hours in a line that stretched 40 blocks up to 10 persons wide over nearly 10 miles,[59] personally paid their respects as Kennedy's body lay in state.[60] Capitol police officers politely reminded mourners to keep moving along in two lines that passed on either side of the casket and exited the building on the west side facing the National Mall.[51][58]

The original plan was for the rotunda to close at 9:00 p.m. and reopen for an hour at 9:00 the next morning.[61] Because of long lines however, police and military authorities decided to keep the doors open.[61] At 9:00 p.m., when the rotunda was supposed to close, both Jacqueline Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy returned to the rotunda again.[62][63] More than half the mourners came to the rotunda after 2:45 a.m., by which time 115,000 had already visited.[51] Military officials doubled the lines, first to two abreast, then to four abreast.[58]

NBC broadcast uninterrupted coverage of the people passing through the Capitol rotunda during the overnight hours.[64][65] While anchoring the Today show from an NBC Washington studio the next day, Hugh Downs said that the mass numbers made it "the greatest and most solemn wake in history."[66] CBS Washington correspondent Roger Mudd said of the mass numbers: "This outpouring of affection and sympathy for the late president is probably the most majestic and stately ceremony the American people can perform."[67] Jersey Joe Walcott, a former heavyweight boxing champion, passed by the bier at 2:30 a.m.,[67] and agreed with Mudd, saying of Kennedy, "He was a great man."[68]

Arrival of dignitaries[edit | edit source]

File:JFK funeral dignitaries.png

Nations that attended the funeral (blue) or whose dignitaries arrived too late, but attended Lyndon B. Johnson's reception on Nov. 25 (pink).

As Kennedy lay in state, foreign dignitaries—including heads of state and government and members of royal families—started to converge on Washington to attend the state funeral on Monday.[69] Secretary of State Dean Rusk and other State Department personnel went out to both of Washington's commercial airports, to personally greet foreign dignitaries.[70][71][72]

Some of the dignitaries that arrived on Sunday to attend the funeral included Soviet First Deputy Premier Anastas Mikoyan,[73] French President Charles de Gaulle, Canadian Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, The Duke of Edinburgh representing Queen Elizabeth II, British Prime Minister Sir Alec Douglas-Home, Irish President Éamon de Valera, and Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie.[74] Queen Frederika of Greece, and King Baudouin I of the Belgians were just some of the other members of royalty attending. Some law enforcement officials, including MPDC Chief Robert V. Murray, later said that it was the biggest security nightmare they ever faced.[70][75] De Valera visited the rotunda.[76]

Funeral[edit | edit source]

As people were viewing the casket, military authorities held meetings at the White House, at MDW headquarters, and at Arlington National Cemetery on Monday's events.[77] First, they decided that the public viewing should end at 9:00 a.m. EST and that the ceremonies would begin at 10:30 a.m. EST.[78][79]

Unlike Sunday's procession, which was led by only the muffled drum corps,[80] Monday's was expanded to include other military units.[81][82][83] Military officials also agreed on what the widowed Mrs. Kennedy requested.[77] First, they agreed that the Marine Band should lead the funeral procession.[77] The other requests included two foreign military units—pipers from the Scottish Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) marching in the procession from the White House to St. Matthew's Roman Catholic Cathedral and a group of 24 Irish Defence Forces cadets performing silent drill at the grave site—and an eternal flame at the grave.[84] The cadets came from the Military College of Ireland in Curragh, County Kildare, which is Ireland's equivalent to West Point,[83] due to the impression created by a similar display at Arbour Hill Cemetery in Dublin by cadets during the visit of President Kennedy to Ireland just five months before.[85] The cadets traveled on the plane to the funeral with Irish President Éamon de Valera, and together, they paid tribute to Kennedy's Irish roots.[83]

Approximately one million people lined the route of the funeral procession, from the Capitol back to the White House, then to St. Matthew's Cathedral, and finally to Arlington National Cemetery.[86][87][88] Millions more—almost the entire population of America—followed the funeral on television.[86][89] Those who watched the funeral on television were the only ones who saw the ceremonies in its entirety.[90] The three networks, ABC, CBS, and NBC, needed at least 50 cameras for the joint coverage in order to allow viewers to follow the proceedings from the Capitol to Arlington without missing a moment.[91] In addition, their respective Washington bureau chiefs (Bob Fleming at ABC, Bill Monroe at NBC, and Bill Small at CBS) also moved correspondents and cameras to keep them ahead of the cortège.[91][92]

The day's events began at 8:25 a.m.,[93] when the MPDC cut off the line of mourners waiting to get into the rotunda because a large group of people tried to crash the line and the MPDC weren't able to sort the people in line out; many had waited for five hours.[58][94] Thirty-five minutes, later, the doors closed, ending the lying in state,[95] though the last visitors passed through at 9:05 a.m.[93]

At 10:00 a.m., both houses of Congress met to pass resolutions expressing sorrow.[96][97] In the Senate, Maine Republican Senator Margaret Chase Smith laid a single rose on the desk Kennedy occupied when in the Senate.[98]

Procession to cathedral[edit | edit source]


The caparisoned, riderless horse named "Black Jack" during a departure ceremony held on the center steps at the United States Capitol Building.

File:Kennedy funeral procession leaves White House, 25 November 1963.jpg

A limbers and caissons bearing the casket of President John F. Kennedy seen moving down the White House drive on the way to St. Matthew's Cathedral on November 25, 1963. A color guard holding the presidential colors, the flag of the President of the United States, and the riderless horse "Black Jack", follow behind.

After Mrs. Kennedy and her brothers-in-law, Attorney General Robert Kennedy and Massachusetts Democratic Senator Ted Kennedy visited the rotunda, the coffin was carried out onto the caisson.[79] At 10:50, the caisson left the Capitol.[99] Ten minutes later, the procession began,[93] making its way back to the White House. As the procession reached the White House, all the military units, except for the Marine company, marched past it, turned right off Pennsylvania Avenue and onto 17th Street.[100] A platoon of the Marine company turned in the northeast gate and led the cortege into the North Portico.[100]

At the White House, the procession resumed on foot to St. Matthew's Cathedral, led by Kennedy's widow and the Kennedy brothers. They walked the same route the widow took quite often with the president when going to Mass at the cathedral.[101] This also marked the first time that a first lady walked in her husband's funeral procession.[102] The two Kennedy children rode in a limousine behind them.[103] The rest of the Kennedy family, apart from the president's father, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., who was ill,[104] waited at the cathedral.[105]

The new president, Lyndon B. Johnson, his wife, Lady Bird and their two daughters, Luci and Lynda, also marched in the procession, though he was told not to do so because of the assassination. However, LBJ recounted his experiences in his memoirs saying, "I remember marching behind the caisson to St. Matthew's Cathedral. The muffled rumble of drums set up a heartbreaking echo."[106] Merle Miller quoted him as having said, "Walking in the procession was especially one of the most difficult decisions I had to make," but it was something he could do, should do, would do, and did so."[107] When he moved into the Oval Office the next day, there was a letter from Mrs. Kennedy on his desk.[107] The first thing she wrote was thanking him for marching in the procession.[107]

Not since the funeral of Britain's King Edward VII in 1910, had there been such a large gathering of presidents, prime ministers, and royalty at a state funeral.[108][109] In all, 220 foreign dignitaries, including 19 heads of state and government, and members of royal families, from 92 countries, five international agencies, and the papacy attended the funeral.[110] Most of the dignitaries passed unnoticed, strolling respectfully behind the former first lady and the Kennedy family during the relatively short walk to the cathedral along Connecticut Avenue.[6] As the dignitaries marched, there was a heavy security presence because of concerns for the potential assassination of so many world leaders,[111][112] with the heaviest being for French President Charles de Gaulle.[113] Under Secretary of State George Ball manned the operations center at the State Department so that no incident happened.[114]

NBC transmitted coverage of the procession from the White House to the cathedral by satellite to twenty-three countries, including Japan and the Soviet Union,[91] allowing hundreds of millions on both sides of the Iron Curtain in Europe to watch the funeral.[115] However, satellite coverage ended when the coffin went into the cathedral.[116] In the Soviet Union, their commentators said that "the grief of the Soviet people mingles with the grief of the American people."[116] However, there was no coverage in East Germany, where television audiences had only a soccer match to watch.[116]

The widow, wearing a black veil, and holding the hands of her two children, John Jr., who celebrated his third birthday on the day of his father's funeral,[103] on her left, and Caroline, on her right, led the way up the steps of the cathedral.[108] Because of the funeral and the day of mourning, the widow postponed John Jr.'s birthday party until December 5, the last day the family was in the White House.[117]

Funeral Mass at cathedral[edit | edit source]

About 1,200 invited guests attended the funeral Mass in the cathedral.[118] The Archbishop of Boston, Richard Cardinal Cushing, celebrated the Pontifical Requiem Low Mass at the cathedral where Kennedy, a practicing Catholic, often worshipped.[119] Cardinal Cushing was a close friend of the family who had witnessed and blessed the marriage of Senator Kennedy and Jacqueline Bouvier in 1953.[120] He had also baptized two of their children, given the invocation at President Kennedy's inauguration, and officiated at the recent funeral of their infant son, Patrick Bouvier Kennedy.[120]

At the request of the First Lady, the Requiem Mass was a Low Mass.[121] That is, when Mass is recited or spoken and not sung, with it being a simplified version of the Mass.[121] Two months later, Cardinal Cushing offered a pontifical Solemn High Requiem Mass at Holy Cross Cathedral in Boston with the city's orchestra and choir singing Mozart's Requiem setting.[122]

There was no formal eulogy at the Low Requiem Mass (the first presidential funeral to feature a formal eulogy was that of LBJ in 1973).[123][124] However, the Roman Catholic Auxiliary Bishop of Washington, the Most Reverend Philip M. Hannan, decided to read selections from Kennedy's writings and speeches.[120] The readings included a passage from the third chapter of Ecclesiastes: "There is an appointed time for everything...a time to be born and a time to die...a time to love and a time to hate...a time of war and a time of peace."[120] He then concluded his remarks by reading the entire Inaugural Address.[125]

Jacqueline Kennedy requested Luigi Vena to sing Georges Bizet's "Agnus Dei", as he had at her wedding to John F. Kennedy ten years prior. Instead, he was told to sing Pie Jesu and Franz Schubert's Ave Maria after the offertory.[126] For a few moments, she lost her composure and sobbed as this music filled the cathedral.[6]

Burial[edit | edit source]

File:Kennedy salute.gif

John F. Kennedy, Jr. salutes his father's casket while standing next to Jacqueline Kennedy, who is holding Caroline Kennedy's hand; Senator Ted Kennedy and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy are seen behind them.

The casket was borne again by caisson on the final leg to Arlington National Cemetery for burial.[127] Moments after the casket was carried down the front steps of the cathedral, Jacqueline Kennedy whispered to her son, after which he saluted his father's coffin;[128] the image, taken by photographer Stan Stearns,[129] became an iconic representation of the 1960s. The children were deemed to be too young to attend the final burial service, so this was the point where the children said goodbye to their father.[130]

Virtually everyone else followed the caisson in a long line of black limousines passing by the Lincoln Memorial and crossing the Potomac River. However, many of the military units did not participate in the burial service and left just after crossing the Potomac.[131] Because the line of cars taking the foreign dignitaries was long, the last cars carrying the dignitaries left St. Matthew's as the procession entered the cemetery.[127][132] The burial services had already begun when the last car arrived.[118] Security guards walked beside the cars carrying the dignitaries, with the one carrying the French president having the most—10.[87][113]

At the end of the burial services, the widow lit an eternal flame to burn continuously over his grave.[118] At 3:34 p.m. EST, the casket containing his remains was lowered into the earth as "Kennedy slipped out of mortal sight—out of sight but not out of heart and mind."[127] Kennedy thus became only the second president to be buried at Arlington, after William Howard Taft, which meant, at that time, the two most recent presidents to lie in state in the Capitol rotunda were buried at Arlington.[56][133] Kennedy was buried at Arlington exactly two weeks to the day he last visited there, when he came for Veteran's Day observances.[133][134]

Gallery[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Inline citations
  1. United Press International & American Heritage Magazine 1964, pp. 3–5
  2. Raymond, Jack (November 23, 1963). "President's Body Will Lie in State". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Associated Press 1963, pp. 36–37, 56–57, 68
  4. Associated Press 1963, p. 79
  5. Healy, Robert L. (November 25, 1963). "All Night Long They Came". The Boston Globe: p. 1. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Wicker, Tom (November 26, 1963). "Kennedy Laid to Rest in Arlington". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  7. United Press International American Heritage Magazine, pp. 122–127
  8. Associated Press 1963, pp. 29–30
  9. Associated Press 1963, pp. 30–31
  10. Heymann 1998, pp. 349–350
  11. NBC News 1966, pp. 22, 26
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Mossman & Stark 1971, p. 188
  13. Chapman, William (November 27, 1963). "Tense Hours of Planning Assured Kennedy Rites' Flawless Precision". The Washington Post: p. A5. 
  14. "Shriver Decided Funeral Details". The New York Times: p. 8. November 26, 1963. 
  15. NBC News 1966, pp. 28, 38
  16. 16.0 16.1 Associated Press 1963, p. 40
  17. United Press International & American Heritage Magazine 1964, pp. 52–53
  18. Kenworthy, E.W. (November 24, 1963). "Johnson Orders Day of Mourning". New York Times: p. 1. 
  19. "Government Offices Closed by President". The Washington Post: p. A15. November 24, 1963. 
  20. NBC News 1966, pp. 72–73
  21. 21.0 21.1 Chapman, William (November 25, 1963). "217-Man Cortege Takes Body to Hill". The Washington Post: p. A2. 
  22. Lowens, Irving (December 1, 1963). "Accurate Listing of Funeral music". The Washington Star. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Associated Press 1963, p. 31
  24. Raymond, Jack (November 24, 1963). "Kennedy's Body Lies in the White House". New York Times: p. 1. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 Mossman & Stark 1971, p. 190
  26. Kinney, Doris G.; Smith, Marcia; Moser, Penny Ward (November 1983). "4 days that stopped America; the Kennedy assassination, 20 years later". Life 6 (24): 48. 
  27. Associated Press 1963, p. 36
  28. United Press International (November 27, 1963). "Mrs. Kennedy's Opposition To Open Coffin Explained". The New York Times: p. 18. 
  29. Associated Press (November 28, 1963). "Closed Coffin Explained by White House". The Washington Post: p. B8. 
  30. Robertson, Nan (November 24, 1963). "Children Learn Father Is Dead; Mother Returns to White House". The New York Times: p. 3. 
  31. United Press International & American Heritage Magazine 1964, p. 45
  32. Hamblin, Dora Jane (December 6, 1963). "Mrs. Kennedy's Decisions Shaped all the Solemn Pageantry". Life 55 (23): 48–49. 
  33. Santo Pietro, Mary Jo (2002). Father Hartke: His Life and Legacy to the American Theater. Washington D.C.: Catholic University of America Press. 
  34. NBC News 1966, pp. 30, 35
  35. White 1965, p. 14
  36. 36.0 36.1 Mossman & Stark 1971, p. 191
  37. "Hoover Jr. Will Represent Father at Funeral Service". The New York Times: p. 11. November 24, 1963. 
  38. United Press International (November 24, 1963). "Hoover's Sons to Pay Honors for Father". The Chicago Tribune: p. 11. 
  39. Mossman & Stark 1971, p. 263
  40. Robertson, Nan (October 24, 1964). "Hoover's Body in Capitol; Johnsons Hear the Eulogy". The New York Times: p. 1. "The body of Herbert Clark Hoover, the 31st president of the United States, lay in state (yesterday) where the young 35th president, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, was mourned less than a year ago." 
  41. Mossman & Stark 1971, pp. 275–276
  42. Associated Press 1963, pp. 36–37
  43. Associated Press 1963, p. 68
  44. 44.0 44.1 Mossman & Stark 1971, pp. 190–191
  45. Mossman & Stark 1971, p. 189
  46. Doolittle, Jerry (November 24, 1963). "Those Who Knew Him Best Throng To White House Under Somber Skies". The Washington Post: p. A4. "Outside the White House the sidewalk, kept clear by police, glistened empty in the rain. A scattering of sodden watchers stood across Pennsylvania Ave." 
  47. United Press International & American Heritage Magazine 1964, p. 58
  48. Lardner Jr., George (November 24, 1963). "People Appear Puzzled, Lost As They Wander in the Rain". The Washington Post: p. A4. 
  49. Associated Press 1963, pp. 56–57
  50. Friendly, Alfred (November 25, 1963). "300,000 Join in Tributes to Kennedy As Notables Arrive for Funeral Today". The Washington Post: p. A1. 
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 Wicker, Tom (November 25, 1963). "Grieving Throngs View Kennedy Bier". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  52. White 1965, p. 16
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 Hunter, Marjorie (November 25, 1963). "Mrs. Kennedy Leads Public Mourning". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  54. Associated Press 1963, p. 81
  55. Mudd 2008, p. 131
  56. 56.0 56.1 United Press International (November 26, 1963). "Kennedy is 6th President to Lie in Capitol Rotunda". The New York Times: p. 7. 
  57. Warden, Philip (November 24, 1963). "Body to Lie in State Today at Capitol". The Chicago Tribune: p. 3. 
  58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 58.3 Franklin, Ben A. (November 26, 1963). "250,000 Mourners File Silently Past Coffin in Capitol's Rotunda During 18 Hours". The New York Times: p. 10. 
  59. Associated Press (November 25, 1963). "Thousands Pass Bier at Night Despite the Cold and Long Wait". The New York Times: p. 2. 
  60. United Press International & American Heritage Magazine 1964, pp. 94, 97, 99
  61. 61.0 61.1 Associated Press 1963, p. 91
  62. Heymann 1998, p. 352
  63. Associated Press (November 25, 1963). "Mrs. Kennedy Revisits Bier". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette: p. 1. 
  64. NBC News 1966, pp. 122–123
  65. Adams, Val (November 26, 1963). "Back to Normal for Radio and TV". The New York Times: p. 75. "NBC...for five hours yesterday morning (2 to 7 a.m.)...televised only one scene. It came from a stationary camera focused on the thousands filing past the bier of President Kennedy in the Capitol rotunda." 
  66. NBC News 1966, p. 131
  67. 67.0 67.1 Mudd 2008, p. 132
  68. Cornell, Douglas B. (November 26, 1963). "Kennedy Laid to Final Rest". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press: p. 1. 
  69. Frankel, Max (November 25, 1963). "Officials of Nearly 100 Lands in U.S.—They Will Meet Johnson". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  70. 70.0 70.1 Duscha, Julius (November 25, 1963). "Kings, Presidents and Premiers Here". The Washington Post: p. A1. 
  71. Rusk, Dean (1990). Rusk, Richard; Papp, Daniel S.. eds. As I Saw It. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 321–322. ISBN 0-393-02650-7. 
  72. Ball, George W. (1982). The past has another pattern: memoirs (1st ed.). New York: Norton. 
  73. Tanner, Henry (November 25, 1963). "Mikoyan Flies to Washington As Russians Praise Kennedy". The New York Times: p. 7. 
  74. United Press International & American Heritage Magazine 1964, pp. 140–141
  75. Franklin, Ben A. (November 25, 1963). "Dignitaries Pose Big Security Risk". New York Times: p. 7. 
  76. NBC News 1966, p. 121
  77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 Mossman & Stark 1971, p. 198
  78. Associated Press (November 25, 1963). "Funeral Processtion to Begin at 10:30 a.m.". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette: p. 1. 
  79. 79.0 79.1 Mossman & Stark 1971, p. 205
  80. Pakenham, Michael (November 25, 1963). "President's Body Lies in the Capitol". The Chicago Tribune: p. 1. 
  81. Mossman & Stark 1971, pp. 200, 203
  82. United Press International & American Heritage Magazine 1964, p. 139
  83. 83.0 83.1 83.2 Raymond, Jack (November 26, 1963). "Riderless Horse an Ancient Tradition". The New York Times: p. 10. 
  84. Mossman & Stark 1971, pp. 201, 202, 205
  85. Malin, Brendan (November 26, 1963). "Why Irish Guards Were Invited". The Boston Globe: p. 15. 
  86. 86.0 86.1 United Press International & American Heritage Magazine 1964, p. 99
  87. 87.0 87.1 Baker, Russell (November 26, 1963). "Silence Is Everywhere as Thronged Capital Bids Farewell to President Kennedy". The New York Times: p. 4. 
  88. "1 Million Line District Streets". The Washington Post: p. A2. November 26, 1963. 
  89. Gould, Jack (November 26, 1963). "TV: A Chapter of Honor". The New York Times: p. 11. "In every way but physical presence, untold millions of persons joined in yesterday's final rites for President Kennedy." 
  90. White 1965, pp. 16–17
  91. 91.0 91.1 91.2 Shepard, Richard F. (November 26, 1963). "Television Pools Camera Coverage". The New York Times: p. 11. 
  92. Mudd 2008, p. 130
  93. 93.0 93.1 93.2 "Timetable of the Kennedy Funeral and Procession". New York Times: p. 4. November 26, 1963. 
  94. Carper, Elsie (November 26, 1963). "Throngs Pay Homage at Bier All Night". The Washington Post: p. A2. 
  95. Jackman, Frank (November 25, 1963). "Quarter of a million people file past Kennedy bier". United Press International. 
  96. NBC News 1966, p. 133
  97. Morris, John D. (November 26, 1963). "Both Houses of Congress Meet to Adopt Resolutions of Sorrow on Kennedy Death". The New York Times: p. 7. 
  98. Warden, Philip (November 26, 1963). "Red Rose Marks Kennedy's Senate Desk". The Chicago Tribune: p. A6. 
  99. United Press International & American Heritage Magazine 1964, p. 100
  100. 100.0 100.1 Mossman & Stark 1971, p. 206
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External links[edit | edit source]

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