Yossef Harmelin (1922–1994) was an Austrian-born Israeli politician, serving as an ambassador in Iran and South Africa and as director of Shabak from 1964 to 1974 and again from 1986-1988. Born in Vienna, Harmelin immigrated to Israel in 1939 under the Youth Immigration program. Harmelin fought with the Israel Defense Forces in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. He became deputy director of Shabak in 1960, rising to his first term as director four years later. In 1974, he left Shabak to pursue other interests, including his ambassadorship, before returning to head the security agency again in 1986. He retired in 1988.

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